The fifth dimension of culture: Michael bond (1988):
Hofstede’s initial research stimulated other culture related studies and the fifth cultural dimension was isolated in association with Canadian researcher Michael bond (1988). whose research was conducted from a Chinese perspective. (Cole,2003, p129)
Short term orientation is when you are focused on the present or past and consider them more important than the future. This means you value tradition, social hierarchy and fulfilling your social obligations. (LTO vs STO,2015) Long term orientation is when you encourage thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future. (Geert hofested,2012)
Countries that scored high on Long term orientation includes china, Taiwan, japan and south Korea. (Cole,2003, p130) This indicates that management in these countries are based on a society that preserves tradition, places high value on education and training, and is inclined to overcome obstacles with time. (Gallant,2013) Countries that come under short term orientation include Great Britain, Australia, Canada and Germany. (Cole,2003, p 130) This indicates that management in these countries accept risk taking generally and Change can occur rapidly. (gallant,2013)
The sixth dimension of culture: Michael Minkov (2007, 2011):
Minknov’s theory is the sixth dimension of culture he worked under the mentorship of
Geert Hofstede. He identified Indulgence vs. Restraint. Indulgence defines a society that allows relatively free gratification of some desires and feelings, especially those that have to do with leisure, merrymaking with friends, spending, consumption, and sex. Its opposite pole, Restraint, defines a society which restricts such gratification, and where peopl...
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...cessibility, Reliability, Validity and Ethics:
• Accessibility is not difficult as there are so many supermarkets manager’s to choose from. Also emails are always available on the website. I can also always go into a supermarket and give questionnaire’s out manually.
• In terms of validity, I will try to assure contact with a lot of managers of the different supermarkets/stores.so if a participant is unable to complete the questionnaire, another participant can complete it, this will not affect the validity of it.
• The reliability threats include participants’ error. This can be avoided by analysing the data before it is collected so the findings can be accurate.
• The result of the questionnaires will only be analysed by the researcher. Keeping participant’s/companies privacy will be my priority. The completion of the questionnaires will be totally voluntary.
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