The field of medical or health geography is saddled with the challenge of defining and conceptualizing medical system. Nevertheless, some argue that this lack of conception is due to the rich diversity of experience and theoretical perspectives among its representative scholars (Press, 1980). Similarly, the challenge of defining a medical system also arises from the different socio-cultural concept of health and medicine (Young, 1982). In this regard Press (1980) further notes that there is no definition which does not contradict the concept of medicine as conceived by others. Thus, the concept of health pluralism or medical pluralism is imbued with diverse conceptions. In the some context, the term is used in reference to the existence of western biomedical health care and indigenous medical systems (Good, Hunter, Katz, & Katz, 1979; Good, 1987; Janzen, 1978; Kleinman, 1978; Leslie, 1980; Twumasi, 1979); whereas, in other cases its been applied to the existence of professional biomedical health care and contemporary alternative health care practices such as chiropractic and homoeopathy (Raffaetà, 2013; Stevenson, Britten, Barry, Bradley, & Barber, 2003; Unschuld, 1980). These distinctions on what health care or medical care systems constitute a pluralistic health society is often based on the concept of health and care, skills and organization of resources in administrating health care (Lee, 1982).
In the developing world, especially sub-Saharan Africa argument has been made that the existence of these two parallel health care systems is as a result of their different conception of disease causation – aetiology of disease (Anyinam, 1987; Good et al., 1979; Good, 1987; Twumasi, 1979). Western biomedical health c...
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...ioeconomic an spatial inequalities being witnessed in these distressed countries were short-term aberations from structural factors. Thus, these challenges can best be overcome by undertaking developmental programs driven by market forces (McGregor, 2001). Poverty and underdevelopment in SSA were blamed on government socialist policies that favoured pivotal role of governments in the provision of core services such as health, education and employment. Under the IMF and World Bank sponsored Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) which Ghana participated, governments were required to remove subsidies on core services (including health and education) and liberalization of the economy through privatization. The removal of government funded health care delivery resulted in the introduction of user fees in hospitals and clinics aimed at cost recovery and transfer of financial
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