Cognitive Category of Reading Perspectives
Cognitive Perspective Definition
Cognitive theories look to address our internal thinking processes related to reading. They examine the unobservable procedures and activities that occur when we store, recover and use information.
Description and Explanation of Cognitive Theories and Models
Transactional Theory suggests that all readers have “individualized reading experiences” (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 65) as a result of their unique, personal exchanges with the text. Each reader’s personalized schemata impact the interactions he or she has with the text, which in turn impacts his or her response to, and interpretation of, the text. Furthermore, Rosenblatt explains that there are two types of responses to text, efferent (factual) responses and aesthetic (emotional) responses. The type of transactional response to text greatly impacts the construction of meaning. This theory can be classified as a cognitive theory because it refers to the unobservable, internal process of interacting with text to create meaning.
The Automatic Information-Processing Model suggests that constructing meaning from text involves a two-step process: (1) the printed words must be decoded (2) the decoded words must be comprehended (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 158-159). This compensatory model explains that as a student reads, different brain processors are activated as needed. While a beginning reader will switch her attention back and forth between the two processes of decoding and comprehension, the fluent reader will need to devote little attention to the decoding process and can rather give almost all attention to constructing meaning from the text (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, p. 1...
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...ile constructing meaning. As theories started to focus on how readers create meaning from text, theorists also began looking into how construction of meaning was related to the process of reading (decoding) text. Stage models emerged that focused on how information was processed in the brain. Many of these models suggested that a multitude of processors simultaneously converge on visual information as we read, and that if one processor is working inefficiently or inadequately, another processor or a combination or processors will compensate for it.
Today, cognitive perspectives have evolved because of the scientific technology available. These days, it is possible to look specifically at the physiological functioning of the brain. The ability to produce visuals of what a reader’s brain is doing as they interact with text opens up a whole new world of possibilities.
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