Map of Fertile Crescent
The Fertile Crescent, 9000 to 4500 BCE.
Click to enlarge and focus enlargement icon
Where there had been small hunter-gatherer societies getting food for themselves, the producers of food were now able to support many who worked at other occupations – such as the priesthood, pottery making, weaving, carpentry and smithing. There were also traders, and the Sumerians developed an extensive commerce by land and sea. They built seaworthy ships, and they imported from afar items made from the wood, stone, tin and copper not found nearby.
There was ownership of property. Some people were more wealthy than others, and political power was unevenly distributed. Sumerian society around 3000 BCE was not as sharing or as egalitarian as hunter-gatherer societies had been or were. The Sumerians appear "to have been the first people to commandeer the agricultural surplus grown by the community and create a privileged ruling class." note3
Around 4000 BCE a people called Sumerians moved into Mesopotamia, perhaps from around the Caspian Sea. By 3800 BCE the Sumerians had supplanted the Ubaidi...
... middle of paper ...
...pulous societies of hunter-gatherers. Civilized societies had dissent – something authoritarians would never be able to extinguish. A Sumerian complained in writing that he was a "thoroughbred steed" but was drawing a cart carrying "reeds and stubble." Another complained of the futility of war, writing "You go and carry off the enemy 's land; the enemy comes and carries off your land."
Rather than docile, people in the city of Lagash in 2380 BCE instigated history 's first recorded revolt. This came after Lagash 's rulers had increased local taxes and had restricted personal freedoms. Lagash 's bureaucrats had grown in wealth. The people of Lagash resented this enough that they overthrew their king. They brought to power a god-fearing ruler named Urukagina, who eliminated excessive taxation and rid the city of usurers, thieves and murderers – the first known reforms.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Our species have been hunter-gatherers for most of the time we have existed on the Earth. The people of the Paleolithic period adapted themselves to the environment of the time, taking food as and when it was available and hunted game which resulted in a high percentage of their food being meat. Evidence suggests that before the end of the Paleolithic period, hunters would have noted the migratory patterns of the herds they hunted and learned which plants were nutritious and not poisonous. Fruits, vegetables, nuts, and berries where gathered when in season and, being nomadic, they followed the sources of food rather than growing crops.... [tags: essays research papers fc]
2046 words (5.8 pages)
- Subsequently taking Western Civilization for the second time this semester’s I must say it was really interesting, I honestly never enjoyed learning about history or Western Civilization at all, maybe due to failing it a previous semester. This semester, however I was able to learn a lot specifically about the hunter gathers and the Agrarian society. It really changed my views and I wanted to learn more. While attending more classes, I came to realize that the way college history is taught is very different from learning about history throughout my years of high school.... [tags: western civilization, mesopotamia, nomads]
1150 words (3.3 pages)
- \Agriculture is also known as farming. It is the producing of food, fiber, feed, and other goods from the growing and harvesting of plants and animals. Agriculture is used everywhere. We use agriculture products everyday starting with the clothes we dress in to the sheets we sleep in. When you think of agriculture, think of the 5 F's. Food, fabric, forestry, farming, and flowers is agriculture. The Fertile Crescent is an area in Western Asia. The area consists in the regions of Mesopotamia and the Levant, confined by the Syrian Desert to the Anatolian of the north.... [tags: Agriculture]
868 words (2.5 pages)
- Starting in 3500 B.C., city-states began growing across Mesopotamia in the region known as the Fertile Crescent, which was surrounded by two great rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates. Around five thousand years ago, starting in approximately 2600 B.C., settlements such as Harappa were built near the Indus River, an area that extends from northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India today. Mesopotamia and Harappa were similar in that their geography was both surrounded by the rivers. However, they had some distinct differences in their culture, lifestyles, and religions.... [tags: Mesopotamia, Indus Valley Civilization]
2007 words (5.7 pages)
- As we look back on history some of the earliest known civilizations were that of the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians. These early people’s lived near rivers because rivers provided the main source for life. The Mesopotamians lived along the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers, which is known to be the Fertile Crescent, running through modern day Iraq and parts of Syria, and the Egyptians lived along the Nile River surrounded by desert on both sides. Geography was the center of everything for these two civilizations, it determined how well they lived and what they were able to thrive in.... [tags: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Euphrates, Egypt]
1462 words (4.2 pages)
- The lifeway of the Hunter-Gatherers underwent two major transitions in which the Systematic Agriculturalists and Pastoral Nomads were created. The Hunter-Gatherers changed in order to better survive and to have better lives. The transition into Agriculture was when people began to grow their own crops. The transition into Pastoralism was when people began to domesticate animals. These two new lifeways had both their advantages and disadvantages. Both lifeways involved one major transition in which human behavior and the environment in which people could live changed.... [tags: agriculturalists, pastoral, nomads]
1300 words (3.7 pages)
- Evolution of Agriculture The average person gives little thought to where the food they eat comes from. One would even say that the subject of anything other than consuming food is on the lack luster side of a conversation. The vast majority of people know nothing about growing and raising food, and most would not care to know, because it isn’t “sexy” or overly controversial. One could say that even less care about how we got to this point and where we have been in history. The human race has come a long way, from nomadic life, to planting and herding, fine tuning and recording of crops and harvest, setting the path for the future, developing many tactics we use today.... [tags: Agriculture, Human, Fertile Crescent]
1891 words (5.4 pages)
- Glaciers in Oregon Glaciers are a big part of life in Oregon. Glaciers supply drinking water, they irrigate crops and they help generate hydroelectric power. They are also a tourist attraction in areas that have more mountains. Glaciers are a natural resource that are so rare that people all over the world are trying to get these “frozen streams.” People want the power of glaciers because they can provide drinking water and people living in the city of La Paz, Bolivia rely on the melting of the glaciers.... [tags: Drinking Water, Irrigate Crops, Power]
956 words (2.7 pages)
- ... For what the Homo sapiens lacked in physique, they more than adequately made up for it with intelligence. The arrival of Homo sapiens from Africa 100,000 brought the end of the Neanderthals and drove them to extinction 70,000 years later. The first Neanderthal fossils were discovered in the mid 19th century and have proved highly controversial within the fields of anthropology, archeology and history. Neanderthal fossils and research are of interest to all members of humanity as they provide context when addressing the mysteries of human origins.... [tags: hunter-gatherers, homosapiens]
907 words (2.6 pages)
- Khoisans the Black Hunter-Gatherers and Pastoralists In Southern Africa South Africa is situated in the southern region of African continent also known as "Land Of The Blacks".but in South Africa we will find many white people along with the blacks.To me being white or black does not matter but the white people in South Africa used to rule over black people and considered them as their slaves. Modern South Africa is composed of many peoples who, as a result of the country's history, fall into four main race-based categories: indigenous Africans or Blacks, Europeans ,Whites, Asians or Indians, and Coloreds.... [tags: Papers]
1234 words (3.5 pages)