The Feminization of Males of Animal and Human Variety through Excess Estrogen in the Water Supply

The Feminization of Males of Animal and Human Variety through Excess Estrogen in the Water Supply

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The effects on estrogen on invertebrates, fish are used a specific example in this paper, have been more pronounced than the effects on mammals. Estrogen has affected fish because they are directly living and developing in the contaminated waters. It would make sense that fish would have a harsher rate of feminization in a naturally occurring settings and that if estrogen concentrations became too high then land animals would start to show feminization in the wild.
Many kinds of fish are ideal for estrogen effect experiments because they have a quick life span. Also, since the fish are living directly in the water they are the biggest population affected by estrogen. Researchers Kidd, Blanchfield, Mills, Palace, Evans, Lazorchak and Flick (2007) had done a 7 year whole-lake experiment at Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in northwestern Ontario, Canada. They studied how chronic exposure to 17α-ethynylestradiol at concentrations of 5–6 ng•L−1 to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promela) would affect the minnow. Over the 7 years they checked the minnows periodically, after 7 weeks and after 3 years and so on, and the results were the male minnows had an elevated level of vitellogenin. And the level of vitellogenin was higher than seen in reference females exposed to the same conditions. Vitellogenin is a precursor protein found in egg yolks expressed in the females in species of fish and most invertebrates. The presence of vitellogenin in males is a form of feminization because if enough estrogen is present the Vg gene will express. The Vg gene expression is induced by estrogen dependent activity and in normal males estrogen levels are too low to induce vitellogenesis. The expression of the Vg gene can also be used as molecular marker f...


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...eminization. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. [Cited 22 March 2011]23(1), 3-8. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00819.x
Tyler CR, Jobling S. 2008. Roach, Sex, and Gender-Bending Chemicals: The Feminization of Wild Fish in English Rivers. BioScience.[Cited 22 March 2011] 58(11), 1051-1059. Available from: doi:10.1641/B581108
Liney KE, Hagger JA, Tyler CR, Depledge MH, Galloway TS, Jobling S. 2006. Health Effects I n Fish of Long-Term Exposure to Effluents from Wastewater Treatment Works. Environmental Health Perspectives. [Cited 22 March 2011] 11481-89. Available from: doi:10.1289/ehp.8058
Environmental Protection Agency. 2010. Downstream without hormones: Can rabbit food solve an emerging environmental problem? [Cited 22 November 2011] Available from: Environmental Pollution: http://www.epa.gov/ord/sciencematters/august2011/rabbitfood.htm


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The Feminization of Males of Animal and Human Variety through Excess Estrogen in the Water Supply

- The effects on estrogen on invertebrates, fish are used a specific example in this paper, have been more pronounced than the effects on mammals. Estrogen has affected fish because they are directly living and developing in the contaminated waters. It would make sense that fish would have a harsher rate of feminization in a naturally occurring settings and that if estrogen concentrations became too high then land animals would start to show feminization in the wild. Many kinds of fish are ideal for estrogen effect experiments because they have a quick life span....   [tags: Environmentalism / Human Health]

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