It is hard to determine the direct origins of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Some researchers believes Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) originated in either ancient Egypt, Ethiopia, or Greece during the fifth century BC (Nawal, 2008, pp. 135-139). However, presently, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is performed on millions of young girls and women (Rahman, 2006). Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) occurs in Africa, Europe, Australia, Canada, and in the United States (Mascia-Lees 2010, pp. 66-68). Furthermore, there are four types of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) procedure. Type 1 hood of skin that sits over the clitoris (prepuce) is removed, type 2 the entire clitoris is removed, type 3 the external genitals are partly or totally removed and the wound stitched together, and type 4 is other practices including piercing, cauterizing, scraping or using corrosive substances designed to scar and narrow the vagina (anonymous 2014).
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...ts and African Resistance: Female Circumcision in a Broader Comparative Perspective. Global Jurist Frontiers, 4(2), 1-23.
Mascia-Lees, F. (2010). Gender & Difference in a Globalizing World. Long Grove: Waveland Press, Inc.
Mashua, Lucy. "A Survivor’s Battle Against Female Genital Mutilation." FrontPage Magazine 25 Nov. 2009: 1-3. Print.
Nawal, N. (2008). Female Genital Cutting: A Persisting Practice. Women's Health in Developing World, 1(3), 135-139.
Rahman, A., & Toubia, N. (2006). Female Genital Muitlation: A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide (2 ed.). New York: Center for Reproductive Rights.
Reyners, M. (2004). Health consequences of female genital mutilation. Reviews in Gynaecological Practice, 4(4), 242-251.
Smith, C. (2011). Who Defines "Mutilation"? Challenging Imperialism in the Discourse of Female Genital Cutting. Feminist Formations, 23(1), 25-46.
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