For many Westerners, Africa is stereotyped as a continent of tribes with primitive social structures and hierarchies. Included in this stereotype is an idea of the African woman as subservient, vulnerable and in need of protection. However, reality shows these notions are incredibly misguided. Although there is no denying that males functioned as the dominant sex in Africa, there are many historical analyses which show that women often had an active social role. One such analysis is “The Iyalode in the Traditional Yoruba Political System,” an essay by Bolanle Awe, which describes the role women played in the governing systems of the Yoruba people of West Africa. In “Rebels or Status Seekers: Women as Spirit Mediums in East Africa,” author Iris Berger details the social role spirit-mediums held in that area, including southern and western Uganda. Moreover, Deborah Gaitskell accounts the impact of Christianity on women in “Devout Domesticity: A Century of African Women’s Christianity in South Africa.” Though there are many other accounts of female agency, these three articles show that many African women have effectively engaged in politics and have innovatively responded to both the social restraints imposed upon them and to the cultural shifts resulting from colonialism. The three situations the authors have detailed provide evidence of women’s active role in African history. By comparing and contrasting the different roles these women played in society—and how colonization affected these roles—I wish to explain and analyze the often neglected contributions women had in African history.
The situations described by these three articles cannot be used to make grand, sweeping statements about women’s roles in all of Africa;...
... middle of paper ...
...ention any change in female agency. Although other authors have provided details on women’s societal roles, one cannot transfer those experiences onto the women on Niumi; two separate places will always have two distinct histories, particularly on the ethnically varied African continent. It is unfortunate that Wright fails to mention female agency, but given outside evidence it is safe to assume that women probably had an active function in Niumi. Women’s actual function in African culture is hardly relatable to the general conception of their role. The notion of the weak and socially inept woman is quelled by descriptions of female political leaders and communal congregations of hundreds of exuberant, devout women worshipers. Women’s resourcefulness and adaptability in African history demonstrates how active they were in shaping their own identities and cultures.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Kenya has been a symbol of East African solidarity, as they gained a reluctant sovereignty after years of ram shaking batter with colonialist Britain. Many factors contributed to the gaining of Kenyan independence in December 1963, using both aggressive and passive styles of rebellion they rebuked colonial autocracy and gained their independence. During the 19th Century numerous European countries begun to take an active interest in African countries, Kenya and much of East Africa was soon swept under British mandate.... [tags: Reluctant Soveriegnty, Britain, Independence]
1558 words (4.5 pages)
- Everyone has certain rights and with those rights come certain responsibilities which one must fulfill in order to preserve his or her rights. Those involved in the Polish Solidarity Party, which began as an independent labor union, had rights which they satisfied in order to protect their rights and in doing so, they created a new and improved Poland. Previous to the formation of the Solidarity Party, the Communist regime controlled Poland. Communism, based on the ideas and teachings of Karl Marx, is a system in which everyone is seen as equal and wealth is distributed equally among the people.... [tags: rights, solidarity, politics]
2894 words (8.3 pages)
- Durkheim’s thesis in regards to social solidarity, based upon his views, which explain individuals influenced by social facts. The social facts he outlined and referred to as a “thing” (Ritzer, p 185) are the languages spoken, buildings, and ethics. Durkheim viewed social facts being outside of the individual but yet powerful in shaping the individual. Social facts defined as material and nonmaterial. Material social facts visible such as buildings, while nonmaterial social facts difficult to see but as a society we know they exist.... [tags: sociology, solidarity]
1185 words (3.4 pages)
- Tornatzky and Klein performed a critical meta-analytic study of over 75 articles in their 1982 theses. They reviewed literature concerning innovation characteristics and their relation to innovation adoption and implementation. Tornatzky and Klein (1982) share the results that earlier literature was largely devoid of “any detailed examination of the reviewed studies’ methodological or conceptual rigor” (Tornatzky & Klein, 1982, p. 28). Based on their results, they determined that research in innovation characteristics is “typified by poor conceptualization and research methodology” (Tornatzky & Klein, 1982, p.... [tags: Innovation]
1317 words (3.8 pages)
- Scientific and technological progress is one of the most important and far reaching of humanity’s effort streams throughout history. One of the hallmarks of any great society is what new or improved knowledge of the world and how it works that the society can contribute. A strong and vibrant culture celebrates the spirit of invention and innovation. Closely allied with this concept is the spirit of entrepreneurship, considered one of the greatest qualities of the American culture. Americans laud the success of the inventor and salesman alike; while the greatest self-promoters are more fully remembered, the greatest minds are never truly forgotten.... [tags: Innovation ]
1665 words (4.8 pages)
- The Agency for Health Care Administration (AHCA) is a regulatory agency in Florida which was created under the Health Care Reform Acts of 1992. The purpose of the Health Reform Acts of 1992 was to ensure efficient quality and affordable health care services were available to all Floridians by the end of 1994. Florida, in the 1980’s, had a very large population of uninsured residents and a large population of senior citizen, practically all of whom are insured by Medicare; and its Medicare expenditures per eligible beneficiary were the highest in the nation (Florida Agency For Health Care Administration).... [tags: regulatory agency, ]
1197 words (3.4 pages)
- The DIA started in 1958. The organizational structure of the DoD and U.S. foreign intelligence came to a new shape with the establishment of DIA. It was Robert McNamara, then Secretary of Defense, who came up with the concept of DIA in 1961. DIA gathers human source intelligence, analyzes technical intelligence, distributes intelligence/reports to the intelligence agencies, provides advice and support to the Joint Chiefs of Staff with foreign military intelligence, and provides military intelligence to combatant commands as its operational functions.... [tags: intelligence agency, dia, foreign intelligence]
988 words (2.8 pages)
- Nurses Bridge the Gap Though the word ‘innovation’ conveys a sense of excitement related to modernization, advancement and progression, its concept has been around since the beginning of time. The most basic definition for innovation comes from Webster’s Dictionary (2013) as “a new idea, device, or method.” Innovation is defined by numerous disciplines or occupations differently, based on the particular field from which the explanations originate. An insightful and appropriate definition related to healthcare, located in current literature, is given here: “the introduction of a new concept, idea, service, process, or product aimed at improving treatment, diagnosis, education, outreach, prev... [tags: health care innovation, leadership]
1298 words (3.7 pages)
- In our fast evolving market today that is characterized by fast change and unending quest for faster and better way to operate, one of the most valuable corporate attributes is innovation. However, corporate success and innovation can be stifled by hierarchy, reutilization and the elimination of risk. Radical innovation is crucial to the growth of firms and economies. In the research entitled “From Invention to Innovation: Conversion Ability in Product Development” by Chandy et al (2006), the unending mission to transform inventions and its promising product ideas into innovations as a commercialized products is the main characteristic of industrial advancement and economic growth.... [tags: radical innovation, corporate culture]
1464 words (4.2 pages)
- Operational innovation is notoriously difficult. The power of creating and deploying new ways of performing fundamental business processes is indisputable; it has been the springboard to success for leading companies in virtually every industry. But many firms have failed at their efforts to make operational innovation work. What is the secret to success. The experiences of Schneider National, a transportation and logistics firm based in Green Bay, Wisconsin, provide an object lesson in how to get operational innovation right.... [tags: Analysis Operational Innovation Business]
1512 words (4.3 pages)