Details of copyright law vary between nation countries, however, many nations share a common interest through two international copyright treaty membership agreements, the Berne Convention (which consists of 164 member states) and the Buenos Aires Convention (which is an agreement between North and South American countries,) The treaties, established in order to protect an authors’/creators’ original work from copying - whether it be literary, dramatic, design, musical or artistic.
‘Fair Dealing’ and ‘Fair Use’
Many countries have adopted a fair usage policy within their copyright laws, ‘Fair dealing’ in United Kingdom law, ‘fair dealing’ in Canada and the ‘United States doctrine of fair use’ to name just a few. The purpose of these policies is to give exception to copyright infringement laws when information has been copied for the purposes of non-commercial research or study, or for the reporting of current events. A document published by the UK intellectual property office: ‘Exceptions to Copyright Law - Research’, states: “The law already permitted limited copying of some types of copyright material, such as books, for non-commercial research or genuine private study. The law has now changed so that all types of copyright works are covered.” The document explains that the amount being copied is limited by the legal application of “fair dealing” and copying the whole work would not constitute as ‘fair dealing’ in this case a licence or paid subscription would be needed. However, according to Section 108 of the Copyright Act, in The USA, it is possible to obtain a whole piece of work from your library, however, certain conditions apply.
The TEACH Act
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... report also explains that illegal downloading of movies and TV have nearly halved “with 65 million film and 55 million TV shows illegally downloaded in 2012, compared to 125 million and 135 million respectively in 2008.”
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Plagiarism of Electronic material has been very difficult to detect in the past, but new technology has made detecting electronic plagiarism of material such as Internet content, online databases, and e-books possible. Educational institutions are now able to check content submitted by students’ using software such as DupliChecker and Turnitin, which check work against current and archived web pages and databases of previously submitted student work consisting of journals, assignments and essays. Students can also take an active part by checking their work using similar software made available to the public.
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