The family and school risk factor for gang involvement is almost the same as those risk factors for juvenile delinquency. The more risk factors that the child possesses the more likely they are to join a gang. Family risk factors include single-parent households, dysfunctional family structure, sexual abuse, family violence, family drug/alcohol abuse, poverty, family members are involved with gangs, weak family bonds/structure, problems exist between child and parent, and sibling antisocial behavior.
The three models used to understand the relationship between delinquency and gang involvement are; selection model, which is when a delinquents’ antisocial propensities, that come from certain personality traits, self-select into gang involvement due to the fact that the gang lifestyle already suits their existing antisocial traits. The facilitation model, which shows that delinquent predispositions may already exist and lay dormant until gang activity encourages this behavior. Therefore, gang membership influences a delinquent’s attitudes, emotions, and behaviors which cause an increase in criminal involvement. The enhancement model combines both the selection and enhancement models by stating that gang members have more antisocial traits than non-gang members even before joining a gang and that the gang involvement intensifies the differences. No causal relationship between delinquency and gang involvement. I agree most with the facilitation model, for the reason that there are more risk factors introduced in this model. To begin, delinquent predispositions may exist in the juvenile but lay dormant. This means that the juvenile already possesses some kind of individual risk factors. Lastly, the juvenile is introduced...
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...ales have multiple and unique programming needs. This includes health care, education, mental health treatment, mutual support and mentoring opportunities, prenatal care and parenting skills, substance abuse prevention and treatment, job training and family support-strengthening services. The six guiding principles for effective treatment for females:1) acknowledge that being a female makes a difference, 2)create an environment based on safety, respect, and dignity, 3)develop policies, practices, and programs incorporating the fact that women are relationship-oriented, 4) address substance abuse, trauma and mental health issues in as comprehensive, integrated and culturally relevant manner, 5) provide women an opportunity to improve their socioeconomic status, and 6) establish a system of community supervision and reentry with comprehensive, collaborative services.
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