An assumption is a statement that we believe is true. At times we have proof to support our assumptions sometimes we just be believe it is true with no evidence. If a person told you that California had a minor earthquake yesterday you would most likely believe them based on California’s history with earthquakes. Then again, if a firefighter told you that the building on fire would blow up you would back away from the building. You do not know if the building will really blow up but you would take the firefighter’s word for it.
There are two different types of assumptions, warranted assumptions and unwarranted assumptions. Warranted assumptions have supporting evidence. Unwarranted assumptions do not have supporting evidence. A very general type of unwarranted assumption is a stereotype. Stereotypes are commonly distorted generalizations of a group of people. Stereotypes typically describe characteristics, which we see as normal for one group. These characteristics could be somewhat true or false. We may know one person with blonde hair that is not so smart so if we form a stereotype based on this that all blonde-haired people are dumb. While it may be accurate for one blonde-haired person, it is not accurate to categorize all blonde-haired people this way...
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...w. Amphiboly is used in the second line; the initial set-up makes the listener picture the speaker wearing pajamas while shooting an elephant. The amphiboly fallacy occurs in the mind of the listener and is used to make the punchline of the joke a surprise, that somehow the elephant was the one wearing the pajamas.
Informal fallacies can extremely inhibit your ability to arrive at the truth. Whether they are committed unintentionally in the course of an individual 's own thinking or intentionally used in an effort to influence others, each may be convincing without providing valid proof for the truth of its conclusion. Nevertheless, knowing what the fallacies are provides us some fortification in either case. If we can recognize several of the most frequent patterns of incorrect reasoning, we are less likely to fall for them ourselves or to be misled by anyone else.
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