The 1898 reform movement is the first bourgeois-capitalistic reform movement in the Chinese history, which attempted to fundamentally change China’s educational, sociopolitical, cultural and military system. It is also famously known as the Hundred Days Reform as a result of its duration of 103 days, and finally terminated by Empress Dowager Cixi. The leading figures of the reform movement were Kang Youwei and Liangqi Chao. This reform movement has a significant impact in motivating Chinese people’s sense of patriotism and national consciousness. The the failure of the movement is multi-factorial, including both external and internal factors. Some people believe that Kang’s group was weak in political powers during his period. The reformers attempted to anchor their hope to Guang Xu emperor, which the emperor does not have actual power in governing the country. Hence, Kang’s leadership has little influence during the movement. In contrast, other people argue that the measures of the reform movement reveal many problems, which include the dimension of the reform, the pace of the action executed, and also the inexperience of the reform leaders. However, In my opinion, the direct and substantially factors that trigger the failure are the the betrayal of Yuan Shikai and the real power held by the Empress Dowager Cixi behind the throne.
At first glance, one obvious reason for the failure is the great disparity in political power between conservative traditionalists and revolutionaries. Kang Youwei, as the leader of the revolutionary group, attempted to replace the feudal political system with the capitalism way of economy, education, military and political system. This might offend the inte...
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...o any form of reform is reluctant. Moreover, once the strength and the dimension of the reform is increasingly intolerable to her scope of approval, she will force to put it down. Lastly, as a Manchu monarchy to rule over the Qing dynasty, there is no doubt that Cixi will try ensure the sovereignty fall into Manchu people’s hand, instead of the Han Chinese.
Write something about Yuan Shikai
1.Yang Gui (1857-1898). One of the key reformers in the Guangxu emperor’s inner circle during the Hundred Days Reform. He was one of six reformers arrested and executed by Dowager Empress Cixi upon her return to power. (Atwill 103)
Franke, Wolfgang. A Century of Chinese Revolution, 1851-1898. N.p.: U of South California, 1970. Print.
"Meiji Restoration." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Britannica Academic. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 26 Nov. 2015.
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