The history of Somalia is a bloody one, filled with failed occupation, anarchy and civil war. Early Somalia established itself as a merchant state. Its key geographical location by the natural strait between the Horn of Africa and Yemen made it a focal point for trade.This essay will explore the history of internal struggles of the Somalilands and its many wars. It will investigate the colonial influences and conflicts between Somalia and its imperial occupiers and how these influences set the stage for future conflicts between the clans. Also, it will attempt to define the reasons why Somalia has become a failed state. The importance of United States foreign policies will be discussed as they have yet to build a reliable government and what, if anything, can be done to resolve the problems that have plagued Somalia for centuries. Lastly, the growing problem of piracy and terrorism in the region will be covered.
Somalia: A History of Turmoil
In order to understand current Somali conflict, one must explore its violent history. Prior to nineteenth century European infiltration, the continent of Africa comprised informal, state-less societies. Many of these groups were ruled by heads of tribes or clan-families, which offered the only semblance of government. Those regions that were not under any type of rule, defaulted to anarchical communal groups of hunter gatherers. Tribal conflicts and territorial disputes were typically resolved by shows of force. This collection of informal systems lasted until trade brought the other continents on to Africa. Trade along coastal Africa brought with it contact with other cultures. Persian, Arab and European merchants capitalized on the bountiful slave...
... middle of paper ...
• Coyne, Christopher J."Reconstructing Weak and Failed States: Foreign Intervention and the Nirvana Fallacy." Foreign Policy Analysis 2.4 (2006): 343-60. CSA Worldwide Political Science Abstracts. CSA. 10 Mar. 2010
• Metz, Helen Chapin et al.“ Somalia : A Country Study “4th ed. Federal Research Divsion, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540
• Pham, J. Peter, “Do Not Resuscitate” The National Interest, No. 94 Mar/Apr. (2008)
• Raffaelli, Mario."The EU in Somalia: Furthering Peacemaking and Reconciliation." The International Spectator 42.1 (2007): 121-7. CSA Worldwide Political Science Abstracts. CSA. 10 Mar. 2010
• Stevenson, Johnathan,"The Somali Model?" The National Interest, No. 90 Jul./Aug. (2007).
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- ... foreign policy in the HOA has changed over time during the colonial period. Their policies included maintaining access to Kagnew Station in Ethiopia, opposing Soviet presence in the HOA and the Red Sea, and establishing a policy towards Africa. As civil war broke out and over 1.5 million Somali’s were at risk of famine. The U.S. foreign policy again changed and involvement increased in Somalia. To assist the starving Somali’s, the United Nation Security Council approved Resolution 751 and 791.... [tags: establishing a sovereign Somali state]
1518 words (4.3 pages)
- In August of 1992, President George Bush Sr. sent US soldiers into Somalia to provide humanitarian relief to those Somalis suffering from starvation. The major problems in Somalia started when President Mohammed Siad Barre was overthrown by a coalition of opposing clans. Although there were several opposing groups, the prominent one was led by Mohammed Farah Aidid. Following the overthrow of Barre, a massive power struggle ensued. These small scale civil wars led to the destruction of the agriculture in Somalia, which in turn led to the deprivation of food in large parts of the country.... [tags: Somalian History, Starvation, Continue Hope]
2908 words (8.3 pages)
- The strategic failure in Somalia proves that the United States failed to come to terms with the new security environment of the post-Cold War era which, while in many ways was understandable, paved the road to 9/11. The U.S. emerged from the Cold War as the sole superpower and as the architect of changes in the international landscape known as globalisation. But the failure in Somalia shows that globalisation escaped the U.S.’s control with devastating consequences. This essay will attempt to prove not only that the U.S.... [tags: United States, Cold War, World War II]
779 words (2.2 pages)
- ... has become more sophisticated in conducting irregular warfare, while relearning that irregular warfare has also existed for thousands of years. According to Jeffrey White, irregular warfare exists in highly specific operational environments, “microclimates,” which need to be understood by intelligence analysts, military commanders, and policymakers. Irregular warfare takes on many factors, including religious and ethnic, which were predominant in Somalia. In 1992, when President Siad Barre fled the country, warlords of the various tribes in Somalia attempted to fill the vacuum as they vied for control of the country.... [tags: somalia, special operating forces, conflicts ]
680 words (1.9 pages)
- Third Party Intervention in Civil Conflict Struggles involving civil wars and violence far outnumber those dealing with external aggression and conflict, especially in today’s society. These internal conflicts over identity, territory, and government are more difficult to resolve through peaceful negotiation, creating an augmented sense of collective responsibility to acknowledge. If handled incorrectly, the situation may worsen, causing tension and (possibly) execution. The use of third parties (military intervention) in civil conflict often creates national distress, reeking havoc and tremendous costs upon assisting nations.... [tags: Papers]
993 words (2.8 pages)
- Throughout the 21st century, Somali pirates have terrorized the waters off the Horn of Africa, seizing deliveries and costing billions of dollars annually to the global shipping trade. Unlike the quixotic buccaneers of the past, these modern-day marauders have changed into unsympathetic criminals who flourish in the lawlessness of the Somali Civil War. Various aid organizations, including the United Nations’ World Food Program, International Committee of the Red Cross, and CARE International, have stated that piracy has prevented the entrance of humanitarian relief, since 80%-90% of food assistance to Somalia arrives by maritime means.... [tags: Somalia]
949 words (2.7 pages)
- Globalization refers to the extraordinary compression of time and space reproduced in the tremendous increase of social, political and cultural interconnections and interdependencies on a international scale (Eitzen&Maxine 2009). Following the Second World War, the imperialist returned political independence to their third world colonies (Eitzen&Maxine 2009). Globalization however, has maintained economic dependency on Western Europe and The United States (Eitzen&Maxine 2009). The assumptions that the spread of democracy and capitalism through globalization benefits most countries are inherently misguided.... [tags: globalization, somalia, somali government]
1791 words (5.1 pages)
- Scholars have debated the different variables that can play an important part in affecting civil wars and even the framework for which to define these types of wars (Kalyvas, 2001, 2007; Kaldor, 2012). Since the late 1990s, the literature concerning natural resources and these sorts of conflicts has been abundant. The role that timber, however, plays in intrastate conflict has a lack of substantial research (Ross, 2004). Expanding on the research conducted by Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler in Greed and Grievance in Civil War (Collier & Hoeffler, 2002) this article seeks to more closely explore the effects of timber specifically on civil wars.... [tags: World War II, War, Civil war]
1374 words (3.9 pages)
- From Tranquility to Turmoil: Imperialism in Somalia No force has had a greater impact on modern nations and their cultures than imperialism. Imperialism is a policy of extending a nation’s rule over foreign areas by acquiring and holding colonies. During the nineteenth century in particular, imperialism became a trend among wealthy European nations such as Great Britain, France, and Italy, as countries competed to gain resources and expand their empires. In enforcing these policies, imperial powers spread numerous effects over the span of the globe.... [tags: Somalian History, Imperialism]
1292 words (3.7 pages)
- Somali pirates are a growing sub-culture with which Somalia, the United States and the majority of world powers must contend. Piracy off the coast of Somalia within the Combined Joint Task Force Horn of Africa Area of Responsibility adversely influences the region, is of global importance and continues to have a negative effect on U.S. interests. “Fighting piracy is a vital element of the United States' strategic objectives in Somalia, which are to help this stressed nation to regain stability, eliminate terrorism and respond to the humanitarian needs of its people” (U.S.... [tags: Somalia Pirates ]
1578 words (4.5 pages)