Factors That Affect Enzyme Reaction Essay

Factors That Affect Enzyme Reaction Essay

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There are many factors that affect enzyme reaction rates due to the inherently complex structure that an enzyme possesses. Enzymes are composed of many different proteins that all have their own functional R groups attached. This structure is was enabled enzymes to lower activation energies of almost all reactions and thus makes them crucial to all life processes. Enzymes do this by coming into contact with a substrate. Once in contact, the R groups will either be attracted to or repel the substrate. With every R group either pulling towards or pushing away from the substrate, the enzyme as a whole ends up rotating and bending. This mechanical motion provides energy that then allows the enzyme to facilitate reactions, thus making them spontaneous. That point is key because almost all reactions within biological systems are non- spontaneous and would not be able to occur without high amounts of added energy should enzymes not be present. This background information on enzymes is crucial to understanding the multitude of different factors that can affect enzyme reaction rates. While there are numerously more factors than will be discussed here, the main factors to consider when thinking of enzyme reaction rates in biological systems are: substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, salt concentration, pH, and temperature.
The first factor that greatly influences enzyme reaction rates is the concentration of substrate within a given system. This value affects enzyme reaction rates by first increasing the reaction rate linearly as it also increases. The substrate concentration then causes the reaction rates to exponentially increase as it continues to increase at a constant rate. There will be a certain point within a given system w...

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...was taken from:!
"Introduction to Enzymes." Effects of pH.
Worthington Biochemical Corporation. Web. 24 Nov. 2014.
"Introduction to Enzymes." Effects of Temperature. Worthington Biochemical Corporation. Web. 24 Nov. 2014.
This mechanism shows how the reaction rate increases as temperature increases until the optimal temperature is reached. It also shows the subsequent decrease in the rate as the temperature continues to increase. This is crucial to understanding enzymes within organisms because most enzymes within animals denature abruptly past 40 ̊C.
Enzymes are a crucial component to any and all life. The different types of factors that affect the rate at which enzymes react are numerous and very specific to each enzyme. Understanding these properties and their magnitudes is a necessary component to understanding all other life processes, and arguably life itself.

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