Prior to the transformative decade of 1970, African Americans involved in certain industries continued to find their chances of upward mobility and corporate inclusivity challenged by the unrelenting racism of labor unions. In one instance, no black leaders operated in an officer’s position in the steelworkers’ union, leading many to understand that white power structures were not an effective way of moving through the channels of union representation (Marable 2007, 113). The racism trade unions surprisingly led to members of the Old Guard of the Civil Rights movement placing the blame on blacks for their lack of involvement, especially as Bayard Rustin declared, “blacks themselves ...
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...nges throughout the national climate demonstrated the many problems facing the newest generation of Black Freedom fighters, especially as numerous forces worked against their efforts to establish cohesive national presence.
Carson, Clayborne, David J. Garrow, Gerald Gill, Vincent Harding, and Darlene Clark Hines. 1991. The Eyes on the Prize: Civil Rights Reader : Documents, Speeches, and Firsthand Accounts from the Black Freedom Struggle 1954-1990. New York City, New York: Penguin Books.
Marable, Manning. 2007. Race, Reform, and Rebellion: the second Reconstruction and beyond in Black America. Third. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.
Eyes on the Prize. 1990. Power to the People. Episode Number 14. Directed by Louis Massiah
and Terry Kay Rockefeller. Written by Louis Massiah and Terry Kay Rockefeller. Narrated by Julian Bond. PBS
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