Social and personality development is dependent on reinforcement history and familial structure. Reinforcement History refers to the amount, consistency and how often one is punished. Punishment is the process in which one’s behavior is shaped though the change in environment as a result of a particular behavior, that reduces the reoccurrence of that behavior in the future. It has been found that partial reinforcement is actually more effective than continuous reinforcement. In fact, a behavior is heavily reinforced by heavily rewarded responses, when the reward stops it leads to drastic extinction of the behavior. The analyzation of serial killer’s reinforcement history has unearthed a pattern. As children serial killers were often punished inconsistently. This suggests that consistently through out their childhood they were rewarded for both, good and bad behavior; however, in other instances they were punished for both, good and bad behaviors.
Different Models of family dynamics include: accepting permissive, accepting restrictive, rejecting restrictive and rejecting permissive. Accepting permissive type is often referred to as total freedom, they are accepting which raises self-image. At the same time they are exposed to others a great deal, this increases social skill; consequently, this could allo...
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...ng them as “abnormal”. However, it takes time for one to form their identity because they have to be comfortable with themselves and their contribution to society. Another way to say this is that their identity has to be consistent and workable within society. Marcia’s Identity Status Theory states that identity is dependent on two factors, crisis and commitment. Upon crisis and commitment identity is achieved, the individual has suffered and realized what they did not like. The result of crisis with no commitment is psychological moratorium, this means that they can not choose because they are not ready. With the lack of crisis but with commitment results in foreclosure, the loss of freedom to choose. However in the event of a lack of crisis and no commitment is when identity diffusion results, this is when someone does not know who they are but they are not trying.
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