The manner in which memories are constructed lends itself to errors. According to the constructive approach to memory, what people remember is not only based on what actually happened, but also include other factors such as previous knowledge, experiences, and expectations (Goldstein, 2011, p. 249). This is troubling due to the fact that eyewitness testimony is the foundation of most criminal trials. The case of Mark Diaz Bravo is an example of how false testimony can not only destroy an individual’s life, but how eyewitness error can lead to the wrongfully convicted being falsely imprisoned. Mr. Bravo was accused of raping a psychiatric patie...
... middle of paper ...
...d on eyewitness error. Although the amount of error in eyewitness memory is currently being debated, the fact that there is error at all should be taken more seriously by the justice system.
Goldstein, E.B. (2011). Cognitive psychology: connecting mind, research and everyday experience. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
No Author. (2004). Innocense lost – not guilty afterall. The Sanfrancisco Magazine. Retreived May 19th, 2011 from www.sanfranmag.com
Hudson, J.A. (1990). “Constructive processing in childrens event memory.” Developmental Psychology, 26(2), 180-187. Doi:10.1037/00120-16184.108.40.206
Loftus, E. F., Miller, D. G., & Burns, H. J. (1978). Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4(1), 19-31. doi:10.1037/0278-73220.127.116.11
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Memory is a cognitive function of the brain that is often taken for granted. Memory may have many purposes, but most importantly it is essentially a record of an entire life span. From this perspective memory is the most important aspect of consciousness. Unfortunately, through formal experimentation it has been shown that memory is fairly inaccurate, inconsistent, and often influenced by our own experiences as well as the bias of others. Memory is not only affected during an observed event, but there are instances where memory can be influenced after an event as well.... [tags: Justice System ]
1175 words (3.4 pages)
- Despite seemingly confident, eyewitness testimony may not be as reliable as is commonly believed; oftentimes perception and attention work on the memory to create inaccurate recollection. The cognitive processes of perception and attention in turn, affect the cognitive process of memory, often influencing the resulting accuracy. Many people equate the confidence level of eyewitness statements as unwavering evidence, yet there are factors that make this a fallacy. Testimony of events after the fact, are often prone to a variety of errors.... [tags: Psychology, Cognition, Cognitive psychology]
1098 words (3.1 pages)
- The Effect of Hypnosis on Eyewitness Testimony Works Cited Missing Under hypnosis an eyewitness could produce false information whist giving a statement to the police. This is because one of the characteristic of being hypnotised is being sensitive to suggestion. Therefore the witness can give suggestive information through leading question (even if this isn't intended). It could lead to an alteration of the existing true memory.... [tags: Papers]
689 words (2 pages)
- The Inaccuracy of Eyewitness Testimony According to Research Eyewitness testimony is the evidence provided in court by a person who witnessed a crime, with a view to identifying the perpetrator. The accuracy of eyewitness recall may be affected during initial encoding, subsequent storage and eventual retrieval. There are three stages of ‘eyewitness memory’; encoding, retention and retrieval. Throughout these stages the memory is distorted, lost, modified, interfered with and reconstructed.... [tags: Papers]
434 words (1.2 pages)
- Eyewitness Accuracy Though most people would not purposefully give a false identification, a false identification is not uncommon when eyewitnesses are looking at a lineup. This can happen for a number of reasons. A witness may be confused or there may be a memory error. Pressure they feel to make an identification may lead the witness to not notice that the perpetrator is not even in the lineup. Knowing this society must look for ways to correct or minimize this problem. The concern about inadvertent influence on a witness is not a new question that the legal system and police forces are facing.... [tags: misinformation from lineup adminisitrator]
1161 words (3.3 pages)
- When thinking about memory, people usually have the misconception that it is like a filing system. People believe that we can choose any date or experience to go over and be able to remember every single detail of that event accurately. However, this is a false belief. People are influenced by many elements everyday; People are influenced by society and other external influences. Therefore, if people can be influenced by external factors, memories can be altered and make them inaccurate. In the criminal justice system, eyewitness testimonies are extremely valuable in a case.... [tags: Criminal justice, Crime]
751 words (2.1 pages)
- Can We Really Trust our Memory. It has been demonstrated that memory is a constructed process. So, we can add new information to past memories every time that we retrieve it in a new context. Every time that people talk about past events’ memories, they most of the time forgets details or give wrong descriptions about things that happened. Moreover, in some cases, people can also describe things that never happened. Therefore, it is very easy to change others memories.... [tags: Eyewitness identification, Witness, Psychology]
1702 words (4.9 pages)
- Eyewitness testimony has long been viewed as important evidence in court cases. The general population believes eyewitness identification more than any other evidence, even if the witness account is conflicting with the other evidence presented. Studies show that eyewitness testimony is unreliable, and yet it is still considered the most important form of evidence. People think that if a person says they saw something then it must have happened. Currently there are no universal guidelines on how to obtain and present such evidence.... [tags: Eyewitness Misidentification]
2505 words (7.2 pages)
- Eyewitness testimony and false imprisonment based on eyewitness First off I would like to say eyewitness testimony is very questionable the human mind is very complexed and there are many issues with eyewitness testimony. One factor of eyewitness testimony was poor encoding in the brain or memory at the time of the event. Which means our mind did not process the memory correctly or has changed it in any way. When most people are endangering them only see the danger, not the person that is causing the danger or harm to them.... [tags: Psychology, Brain, Eyewitness identification]
998 words (2.9 pages)
- During the identification and prosecution of a suspect, eyewitnesses are the most important. Eyewitness testimony needs to be reliable as it can have serious implications to the perceived guilt or innocence of a defendant. Unfortunately, the reliability of eyewitness testimony is questionable because there is a high number of eyewitness misidentification. Rattner (1988) studied 205 cases and concluded that eyewitness misidentification was the factor most often associated with wrongful conviction (52%).... [tags: Gender, Male, Eyewitness identification, Female]
1245 words (3.6 pages)