The recognition of the importance of leadership, in combination with a desire to understand the characteristics best suited to an effective leader, has prompted the ongoing study of a vast and changing field. The study of leadership started as an investigation of the traits an individual was born with that predestined a leadership path of success, also known as the Great Man Theory, and have progressed to a focus on cross-cultural aspects, impact of values, and relationship between leader and follower (Perruci & McManus, 2012). This variance in leadership emphasis, as trends have emerged from the end of the 19th century to modern times, offers a window of opportunity for individuals to capitalize on and to pursue a universal leadership language. The framework from which leadership is constructed builds on the essence of individual strengths and weaknesses in a fluid and unpredictable landscape (Latham, 2014). The purpose of this paper is to explore the multifaceted aspects of leadership in application to modern principles and relevance.
The term holistic, as defined in Merriam-Webster Dictionary (n.d.), is the correlation of involved systems rather than separate parts. Using this definition as a springboard, holistic leadership can be inferred as a concept incorporating ideals based on whole components, rather than individual leadership, organization, or followership facets. As such, a holistic leadership approach embraces the complex elements of individuals and systems integrated in relationship for a common purpose. That is to say, integrative or holistic leadership methodology embraces the processes of leadership, pushing the limits beyond a simple fulfillm...
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...leader-member exchange theory hinges on the belief that relationships between these two groups are imperative to organizational outcomes (Shweta & Srirang, 2013). Thus, mutual exchange between leaders and subordinates, also known as reciprocity, is key in cultivating these relationships (Shweta & Srirang, 2013). The similarity shared between leader-member exchange theory, transformational leadership theory, and e-leadership theories is the value of relationships between leaders and followers or subordinates. Yet, the three theories promote different methods for extracting positive work outcomes.
The leader-member exchange theory spotlights the importance of roles. For example, Shweta and Srirang (2013) write leader-member exchange represents relationships in the work setting based on selection of roles, creation of roles, and the procedures associated with roles in
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