In order to expand successfully in a global marketplace, organizations must be able to adapt to various multicultural differences. Research indicates that national culture affects various core business activities such as leadership practices, ethics, sales and marketing, communication, etc. (Hofstede, 1980). Consequently, understanding and being sensitive to these cultural differences has become a necessary competence to align U.S. organizational practices to the business practices within India (Corporate Leadership Council, 2003). Further research indicates a shortage of business leaders with the necessary skills and competence to be successful within the global marketplace (Corporate Leadership Council, 2005).
In 1980, Hofstede published his work Culture’s Consequences which has provided a proven methodology for identifying and understanding national cultural dimen...
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Schwartz, S.H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical test in 20 countries. In M Zanna (Ed.) Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol 25, pp 1-65). New York. Academic Press.
Smith, P.B. (2002) Culture’s consequences: Something old and something new. Human Relations, 55(1) 119-135.
Smith, P.B., & Bond, M.H. (1993) Social psychology across cultures: Analysis and perspectives. New York: Haverster Wheatsheaf.
Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (1998) Riding the waves of culture: Understanding cultural diversity in business (2nd ed). London: McGraw Hill.
Vijver, F. van de, & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis for cross-cultural research. Thousand Oaks, CA; Sage.
Williamson, D. (2002) forward from a critique of Hofstede’s model of national culture. Human Relations, 55(11), 1373-1385.
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