The fast growth and development in power system has made the system becoming heavily stressed and more complex from day to days. This is happened due to the several reasons such increased of load in the transmission lines and also the difficulties in constructing new transmission system as well as inconvenience in building up new generating plant near the load centers. These incidents may lead to the power system problems such as voltage instability problem or voltage collapse and loss maximization. Generally, power system is an electrical network that contains several components such as generators, transmission lines, loads, and also voltage controller. Electric utility power system originates in the power plant or generation; it is then transmitted to the loads by the transmission lines .
As stated earlier, one of the power system problems is voltage instability or voltage collapse problem. Referring to , voltage instability or voltage collapse is dynamic process; It can be defined as the absence of voltage stability, resulted from the decreased of progressive voltage. Voltage magnitudes fall gradually in the early stage of voltage collapse. This condition might be temporary voltage recovery due to the voltage control action; however, the voltages soon drop to a very low level. Voltage instability or voltage collapse has become serious problem in power system and recently, active research subject
attracting investigators from the field of power engineering. A study on voltage collapse mechanism  shows that there is an iterative reaction of voltage drop between the system network and dynamic load that can lead to the voltage collapse. This dynamic phenomenon and incident of voltage collaps...
... middle of paper ...
...o describes the application of ANN to control the automatic on-load tap changer of two parallel transformer connected across the network.
Reference  presents the fuzzy technique for voltage control and parallel operation between local gas turbine generation and utility source in industrial plants. References [34-35] also show the application of fuzzy logic for reactive power and voltage control and power flow analysis.
References [36-37] present the Evolutionary Algorithm approach for angle stability improvement and optimal Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) placement by considering loss minimization.
A simple review of the literature and basic information that incorporate with this project has been discussed and presented under this chapter. A review from other researches on optimization techniques are also discussed in this chapter.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Programming has been regarded as a logical procedure that “takes input data, processes it, and produces output data.” (Rouse, 2008, para 1) Three common examples of programming are object-oriented programming (OOP), event-driven programming (EDP), and procedural programming (PP). (Rouse, 2008) OOP is a programming language model defined by “objects” as opposed to "actions" and “data rather than logic.” (Rouse, 2008, para 1) EDP is a programming language model defined by reacting to user or processor actions such as keyboard strokes and mouse clicking to execute a command.... [tags: Programming language, Object-oriented programming]
876 words (2.5 pages)
- Programming Languages Programming language is a form of language that is designed to communicate instructions to a computer; the language can be used to control the behavior of the computer or calculate math equations. There are five generations of programming languages that have been developed from the 1930’s to present day. These programs make it capable for computers to perform a number of applications from computing algorithms to directing the behavior of the computer. Once the first computers were created programming languages took longer to develop.... [tags: Computer, Programming language, Computer program]
1174 words (3.4 pages)
- As a result of these problems, to achieve high levels of reuse in OOP, one is often forced to write very small classes, which leads to an explosion in the number of classes in a system. (Krubner 2014, 41) The irony of all of this is that programmers reuse code without OOP—often by simply copying and pasting. There 's no need to superimpose some elaborate structure of interacting, instantiated objects, with all the messaging and fragility that it introduces into a program. (Mansfield 2005, 1) 7. OOP IS MORE DIFFICULT TO LEARN OOP requires more discipline, management and training than classic software development does.... [tags: Object-oriented programming, Programming language]
1073 words (3.1 pages)
- 1, To describe what I did to prepared for my programming First of all I had no much computer programming skill from the past , but I do have some short-term programming courses completion. of course the basic idea from the past about python language programming is a big deal to me to prepared myself early for this class. Otherwise not easy to find out exactly what is going on around computer language program; programming a computer is not so simple and controlled within a short period of time, computer programming is need big time and a lot of effort.... [tags: Programming language, Computer programming]
1067 words (3 pages)
- What is object-orientated programming. Object-orientated programming is methodology which is organized around objects and not actions. The perspective that this approach takes is that it is easier to compare objects. Object-orientated programming can be used in conjunction with UML, and within Object-orientated programming and there are various different methods. Object-orientated programming can be defined as constructing a model of a real world through combining data and actions. History of Object-orientated programming Object orientated programming first began in the 1960’s.... [tags: Object-oriented programming, Programming language]
962 words (2.7 pages)
- One of the major paradigms in programming language is Object Oriented programming. In modern software engineering object oriented programming is considered as the major concept, as it allows the programmer to facilitate clean and efficient code. Apart from this, the design patterns of object oriented programming suits well with most of the computing issues. Object oriented programming produces well organized code and also focuses on determinant of productivity. In this report we will discuss and compare objected oriented programming language and procedural programming language along with the genesis of OOP.... [tags: Object-oriented programming, Programming language]
798 words (2.3 pages)
- The diversity and the unity of life are equally meaningful and striking aspects of our Earth (Dobzhansky, 1973). Although an astounding 1.2 million species have already been identified, it is estimated that another 8.7 million are yet, to be discovered and classified (Mora et al., 2011). By understanding what unifies us –our genes, our understanding of the organisms we share our planet with will continue to grow. Genomic sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.... [tags: genomic sequencing, evolutionary biology]
1635 words (4.7 pages)
- Identify and describe the security concerns related to algorithm implementation, interaction with other components, and program output. There are countless weaknesses that are consequence from poor programming practices that arising from insufficient checking and validation of data and error codes. The alertness of these concerns is instrumental to the developing of secure program code. Algorithm (which is a mathematical descriptions that are machine independent) implementation comprises a software coder that creates software and then confirms that a user is be able to input data to successfully use the program.... [tags: Programming language, Computer, Computer program]
708 words (2 pages)
- People use programs in their everyday lives, even if they don’t know it. But to start off, one needs to know what a program is. A program is a set of instructions that controls the operation of a machine. This is used everywhere. Whether a person is writing a paper or browsing the internet, taking a picture or playing a video game, everything people do on electronic devices runs on a program. Programming is an area that may confuse most people. There are many types of programming and many more types of programming languages.... [tags: Programming language, Computer programming]
1144 words (3.3 pages)
- Pascal programming language was designed in 1968, and published in 1970. It is a small and efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. Pascal was developed by Niklaus Wirth. The language was named in honor of the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal. In 1641, Pascal created the first arithmetical machine. Some say it was the first computer. Wirth improved the instrument eight years later. In 1650, Pascal left geometry and physics, and started his focus towards religious studies.... [tags: Data Structuring, Programming Language]
1328 words (3.8 pages)