Evolution of Human Bipedalism: Essay

Evolution of Human Bipedalism: Essay

Length: 1773 words (5.1 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

The Arboreal Ancestry
Recent research has proved to support the hypothesis that one of the hallmarks of human evolution, bipedalism, arose from an arboreal ancestry. As implied, the tree-living ancestor was to have a benefited from a bipedal gait through aided mobility throughout the tree network (Thorpe et. al., 2007). In addition, the use of the upper body in the arboreal ancestor would be helpful in foraging (Stanford 2006). The importance of the arboreal ancestor hypotheses is their relation to the lower body development towards a bipedal posture and gait.

Orangutan Navigation: An Arboreal Hypothesis
As proposed by Thorpe et. al. the importance of unlimited mobility within the canopies provides a selective pressure for the evolution of bipedalism (2007). The basis of the study not only addresses increased mobility, but also increased stability on less stable branches (Thorpe et. al. 2007). Thorpe et. al. proposes that the increased stability on less stable branches is positively correlated to increased mobility (2007). Orangutans exhibit this correlation through their ability to access a wide variety of branches with the aid of the upper limbs (Thorpe et. al. 2007). The study found that 75% of all biped activity individuals would use hands for additional support (Thorpe et. al. 2007). Furthermore, Thorpe et. al. found that 90% of bipedal bouts occurred while supporting with extended hind-limb posture (Thorpe et. al. 2007). Thorpe et. al. evidence proves bipedal posture is widely used as a mechanism of support (2007). A mechanism of support in this case would act as a selective pressure for stability, thus making the bipedal trait a form of stabilizing selection (Thorpe et. al. 2007). Additionally Thorpe et. al. states that...

... middle of paper ...

...nford C. 2006. “Arboreal Bipedalism in Wild Chimpanzees: Implications for the Evolution of Hominid Posture and Locomotion”. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 129:225-231.
6. Schwartz J. 2007. “The Origins of Human Bipedalism”. Science Magazine. 318: 1065.
7. Thorpe S, Holder R, Crompton R. 2007. “Origin of Human Bipedalism As an Adaptation for Locomotion on Flexible Branches”. Science Magazine. 316:1328-1331.
8. Thorpe S, Holder R, Crompton R. 2007. “Response to ‘The Origins of Human Bipedalism’”. Science Magazine. 318: 1065.
9. Videan E, McGrew WC. 2002. “Bipedality in Chimpanzee (Pan trolodytes) and Bonobo (Pan paniscus): Testing Hypotheses on the Evolution of Bipedalism”. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 118: 184-190.
10. Williams S. 2010. “Morphological integration and the evolution of knuckle-walking”. Journal of Human Evolution. 58: 432-440.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Evolution Of Bipedalism And Large Brain Size Essay

- ... The human pelvis became wider, shorter, and more curved compared to our evolutionary relatives to provide more stability while walking and running. Spinal modifications, such as a centered foramen magnum, increase the support needed to maintain a vertical position. The femurs in humans are much longer and farther apart at the hips, but adduct inward making them narrower at the knees. “This angle allows anthropologists to diagnose bipedalism even if the fossil is only the knee end of a femur.” (Singh, 39)....   [tags: Human, Hominidae, Human evolution, Primate]

Powerful Essays
853 words (2.4 pages)

Language And Communication, Self Conceptualism, And Bipedalism Essay example

- ... Human beings are the only species that have the capacity to use linguistics as a way to discuss things both in the past, present, and future. The use of language helps a person not only self-conceptualize, but also understand the world around them, meaning it not only helps a person express their sense of self, it also involves both a social and cultural context. Language permits human beings to communicate fully with one another and is in part a big reason as to what makes us human since no other species has a form of communication as advanced or relatively close to what has been created by humans (Kottak)....   [tags: Human, Human evolution, Hominidae, Primate]

Powerful Essays
1066 words (3 pages)

Factors in the Evolution to Bipedalism Essay

- The evolution of the human species has significantly changed during the course of evolution to what is now the modern day Homo sapiens. Some of the changes that have occurred through the evolution are bipedalism, changes in body features such as brow ridges, and an increase in brain capacity. Bipedalism is a form of locomotion that is on two feet and is the one factor that separates humans from other forms of hominoids. The first bipeds are believed to have lived in Africa between 5 and 8 million years ago....   [tags: the human ape, ]

Powerful Essays
757 words (2.2 pages)

Essay on What´s Human Evolution?

- Human evolution Introduction Human evolution is the growth and adaptions of humans over the six million years we have been on this earth. The reason we have adapted is to increase the chance of our survival. There is a lot of scientific evidence that supports this concept of evolution such as human fossils, natural selection, genetic evidence and major developments in humans over the six million years such as bipedalism. This report will explain the concept of human evolution, give strong scientific evidence to support the concept and give examples for this theory....   [tags: scientific evidence, bipedalism]

Powerful Essays
631 words (1.8 pages)

Human Evolutionary Traits and Behjaviours: Bipedalism Essay

- Throughout the conceptual yet acknowledged theories surrounding human evolutionary traits and behaviours, the exact forces that specifically promoted bipedalism are still difficult to determine. Controversy lies with the suggestion that bipedalism arose from as early as 5.8 million years ago, in the late Miocene era, but it can be scientifically defined that the first definite bipedal hominin was the Australopithecus anamensis in the Pliocene. These findings suggest that at 3.9-2.9 million years ago, bipedalism was evolving; certain conditions acted as influences upon the hominins to develop bipedality....   [tags: Evolution Biology]

Powerful Essays
1332 words (3.8 pages)

Essay on What´s Bipedalism?

- The birth of a baby is a miracle to the world; a baby crawling by itself is a huge achievement; a baby taking its very first steps is a historical moment for human evolution. A human is able to endure many changes, socially and environmentally, tailoring its skills and abilities along the way. The most remarkable adaptation for humans is the ability to walk upright on two feet, rather than crawling on all fours. When a baby is able to master the mechanics of bipedalism, it is a significant moment in that child’s life....   [tags: having free hands, human evolution]

Powerful Essays
726 words (2.1 pages)

The Evolution Of Human Anatomy Essay

- As human beings, we always want to know how we have evolved over millions of years. We know that bipedalism is one of the most important developments of human. Even though bipedalism includes both walking and running, running is not considered to be a major factor in human evolution and changes in the anatomy. Running instead is viewed as a by-product of enhanced walking. However, recent studies by Bramble, Lieberman, and other scholars have suggested that the evolution of many features of human anatomy is an adaptation to long distance running (2004)....   [tags: Human, Human evolution, Energy, Human anatomy]

Powerful Essays
2753 words (7.9 pages)

Essay about How Bipedalism Arose

- When a person is asked how humans differ from apes, bipedalism would probably be the last thing that a modern human would think of. Bipedalism seems so ordinary when people live in a world of technology that has seen the inventions of cars, planes, and computers. When Albert Einstein is mentioned, very few would agree that his theory of relativity is second place to the feat of walking upright on two legs. Yet, if the first Hominids had not taken those first steps, humanity might not have evolved into the modern societies that currently exist....   [tags: charles darwin, locomotion, evolution]

Powerful Essays
1366 words (3.9 pages)

The Theory Of Human Evolution Essay examples

- ... Bipedalism marked a substantial moment in time as it was the first biological change to distinguish the evolutionary line and led to further adaptations amongst the various species of the genus Homo. Such adaptations included the allowance for more diverse and useful movement, due to the fact that the arms were now free from being required for locomotion, as well as the conservation of energy as less movement was required to travel a set distance. Before the genus Homo came into noteworthy existence some of the first known bipeds were amongst the ardipithecines inhabiting Africa’s tropical woodlands, dating back about 4.4 million years ago....   [tags: Human evolution, Human, Natural selection]

Powerful Essays
1187 words (3.4 pages)

Evolution And Evolution Of Evolution Essay

- Evolution, what is evolution. Evolution is the process by which different kinds of organisms have changed and adapted from their earlier forms. Evolution relates so closely to biology because biology is the study of life and evolution is how living organisms have adapted to the environment. My goal for this paper is to explore evolution in mammals, the basic theory of evolution, beliefs of evolution, the main contributors of evolution, evolution in humans, evolution in monkeys, things that humans lost from evolution, as well as extinctions....   [tags: Evolution, Charles Darwin, Biology]

Powerful Essays
1165 words (3.3 pages)