The Evolution Of Human Anatomy Essay

The Evolution Of Human Anatomy Essay

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As human beings, we always want to know how we have evolved over millions of years. We know that bipedalism is one of the most important developments of human. Even though bipedalism includes both walking and running, running is not considered to be a major factor in human evolution and changes in the anatomy. Running instead is viewed as a by-product of enhanced walking. However, recent studies by Bramble, Lieberman, and other scholars have suggested that the evolution of many features of human anatomy is an adaptation to long distance running (2004). They have also proposed that endurance running, which started out at an adaptation for scavenging and later for persistence hunting, is one of the key factors for early hominins to obtain high protein food sources (Bramble et al, 2004 and Lieberman et al., 2009). However, this hypothesis has some criticisms about it. Pickering and Bunn criticizes that since the earliest homo lived in savanna-woodlands which are environments consisted of open grassland as well as dense vegetation and given that ungulates were the main prey at this time period, it is unlikely that persistence hunting would be effective (2007). On another hand, because of dense vegetation of the environment, the visibility is low. Therefore, it would reduce competition for early hominins, and they didn’t have to compete with other to reaching the food sources (Pickering et al., 2007)
First of all, it is important to understand the different mechanism between walking and running. Walking involves a mechanism called “inverted pendulum” in which the body center of mass “vaults over a relative extended leg, efficiently exchanges potential and kinetic energy out-of-phase with every step.” (Bramble et al., 2004) On the oth...


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...., 2007). Hence, the criticism of Pickering and Bunn about scavenging is somewhat irrelevant.
In conclusion, regardless of what driving force is behind endurance running, it is safe to conclude that human anatomy has evolved through time to give us the ability to run long distance. Early Homo has evolved new tendons and ligaments, changed in the anatomy, reinforced bones in lower body, and developed a better respiratory and heat ventilation system to help the body caring out a physical demanding task, endurance running. Evolution is one the most amazing process of nature; it gives rises to diversity and complexity to every biological organism from macro level to micro level. Thanks to evolution, we now have a diverse and wonderful world that we have not yet fully understood. “Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better.” – Albert Einstein.

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