An area of study that focuses on extinction is the realm of exposure-based therapy for individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This field utilizes extinction by pairing a memory with a conditioned stimulus (CS) cue, then modifying it to enhance extinction (Marks, 2014). This study, by Elizabeth Marks, attempts to pair a more pleasant memory in replacement of the memory causing PTSD, both memories occur within a specified reconsolidation window- which will, theoretically, negate the traumatic memory. In this study, the attempts actually increased the frequency of traumatic memory intrusions; however, the principle of using a CS cue is intriguing, and m...
... middle of paper ...
... effect. Another function of this behavior could be attention seeking- consuming alcohol in abundance to gain the attention of peers (high school/college parties). If the individual’s associating with this person ceased the attention-seeking reinforcement, the behavior would reduce (or stop)- which would lead to extinction. The third function of this behavior could be escaping task demands. If an individual feels overwhelmed with obligations, they may resort to alcohol to avoid dealing with its’ consequences. This is a common occurrence in modern society, and extinction may pose to be a great challenge if this is the function of the behavior. One way to place this behavior on extinction would be to analyze the individuals coping methods, or reduce their workload- a reduction in obligations could lead to a decrease in consumption- ultimately leading towards extinction.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- There are a plenty of animals on the face of this earth and they live on different terrains. But there is one place where most of them can be found and that place is called zoo. Children love going to zoos and watch their favorite animals. But after growing up they realize that those animals are not living like they are supposed to. Zoos can be found in every major city in the world, and they accommodate both native and exotic animals. These beings can vary from an elephant to a kiwi and that is the reason why zoos are so popular.... [tags: Extinction, Biodiversity, Species]
1371 words (3.9 pages)
- A defining feature of mankind is the ability to organize, and socialize with the immediate environment, which can either be the natural environment, social groups and organizations. While this feature largely relates to man’s propensity to make the best of most situations, such as living communally to offer greater protection to society members; it also relates to the innate nature of man’s curiosity. Yeats and Yeats (2007) observe that curiosity in man fuels the need to learn, and investigate, and can only be satisfied “.... [tags: Social Evolution]
1452 words (4.1 pages)
- Have you ever wondered how many plant and animal species are threatened by extinction. In an article of an issue of the Discovery Education magazine it stated “To date 16,928 plant and animal species are believed to be threatened with extinction.” (Extinction Facts) That is an enormous number and with the constant growing and changing world that number will only increase. Based on all the environmental factors placed on animals, the extinction of untamed animals is inevitable but, steps should be taken to preserve the remains of untamed animals so that scientific research can be conducted.... [tags: Extinction, Endangered species, Global warming]
873 words (2.5 pages)
- The Earth is far and away the most biodiverse planet in our solar system, with about 8.7 million more unique species than the other 8 planets (UNEP). However, the Earth’s commanding lead is shrinking; not because the other planets are increasing biodiversity, but because Earth’s is decreasing. According to the World Wildlife Fund, we as a planet are losing 1,000 to 10,000 more species than the natural rate. Since the total number of species is hard to pin down, this can mean anywhere from 200 to 10,000 species going extinct per year (World Wildlife Fund).... [tags: Extinction, Endangered species]
1204 words (3.4 pages)
- Wildlife has been living alongside man for as long as our species has been a part of this world, and the wildlife has even been here longer. You’d think that with man and animal coexisting in each other’s presence we’d respect the wild species that we have now a lot more than we do. Many people, whether they’re aware or not, are slaughtering animals all the way to extinction, and there are definitely more ways than one that humans are partaking in the extinction of endangered animals. We have to clean up our act before it’s too late for these animals, including us.... [tags: Extinction, Endangered species, Plant]
1257 words (3.6 pages)
- Thirteen years ago, wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Of two potential locations considered (Snowflake Springs and Butte Rock) they were placed in the low-risk prey Butte Rock for the purpose of encouraging the wolves to spread out and create packs. Before and during the reintroduction project, Oregon State University researchers measured the rate of willow growth along 2.6 miles of the Gallatin River, which ran through Butte Rock and Snowflake Springs. During their study from 1998 to 2002, the researchers discovered that Snowflake Springs, where the elk were and no wolves lived, the willow growth dropped from 92% to nothing (“How Wolves Help Willows,” 4).... [tags: animals, Yellowstone, Extinction, linguistics,]
1188 words (3.4 pages)
- On a day to day basis, most people take for granted the lives we get to live, and put too much value on the extra things such as materialistic items. Also, the majority of humans are too invested in their personal lives or with themselves that they do not look at the big picture of how what we are doing now will effect us later. As humans, the routines in our lives can bring us harm, and within time a we may become the sixth extinction. In “The Sixth Extinction” by Elizabeth Kolbert, she gives many examples of animals that are or may become extinct.... [tags: Extinction, Human, Species, Megafauna]
1503 words (4.3 pages)
- Cretaceous Extinction Event Causes, Evidence, and Effects on Biodiversity The most significant event of the Cretaceous era came at its end. Nearly 65 million years ago, the second most severe mass extinction in earth’s history occurred. This resulted in the loss of around 80% of species living at the time. Though nowhere near as severe as the end-Permian mass extinction, the end-Cretaceous extinction is the most well known mass extinction event. This is due to the violent event that caused it the extinction, as well as the chapter of earth’s history that it closed: the Dinosaurs.... [tags: mass extinction, dinosaur, asteriord]
1325 words (3.8 pages)
- The Causes of Marine Life Extinction Did you know that more than 90 percent of all organisms that have ever lived on Earth are extinct. According to Pandey, the author of Humans Pushing Marine Life toward ‘Major Extinction’, nearly 10,000 species go extinct each year, and this rate is estimated to be 1,000 times higher than the natural extinction rate (1). Human beings are causing irreversible damage to the oceans and their wildlife, which is being led by two major reasons: Commercial fishing or over-fishing, which damaged the marine environment and caused a loss in the marine life diversity, and pollution, which is a primary way of the extinction causes that drastically modifies the marine... [tags: Marine biology, Ocean, Extinction, Oceanography]
1941 words (5.5 pages)
- ABSTRACT Several mass extinctions have occurred during the Earth’s history. The Cretaceous – Tertiary Boundary (K-T) Extinction caused the loss of at least three-quarters of all species known at that time including the dinosaurs. The cause of this mass extinction is a controversial subject among scientists but the fossil evidence of it’s occurrence is abundant. INTRODUCTION The K-T Extinction occurred 65 million years ago. Many species perished in that extinction. Today evidence for this extinction can be seen in the fossil record.... [tags: K-T Extinction]
2446 words (7 pages)
- Evaluation And Optimization Of A Human Drug Screening For Cns Drug Development ( Tom )
- Common Sense, Is It Really All That Common?
- Corporate Social Responsibility ( Csr )
- Wuthering Heights By F. Scott Fitzgerald
- `` The Sleeping Beauty `` : Love Is A General Theme
- Double Constraint : Triple Constraint