... middle of paper ...
...fails to capture the full picture surrounding the passage of a piece of legislation. For example, as (Collier 1959) remarked, the passage of a piece of legislation signed by the president may be different than the original bill introduced in the Congress. Yet, the president can still claim political victory after the bill passes. In addition, during divided government, when party control is divided between the branches, success in terms of outcomes measures may fail to capture the full picture of which player was really preventing the objective of the other.
In the end, as some scholars suggested, success and influence are dependent on the strategic goal of the President and Congress, therefore, both should be concurrently used but defined differently depending on whether the process is taking place in the unified government or a government controlled by one party.
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