The perception that Australia was quietly “settled” without conflict with the Aboriginal people, an idea that, it has been argued, enabled the concept of “terra nullius” to be maintained, has been substantially revised in recent years. It is now generally acknowledged that resistance took place right from the first tentative encroachments by European nations into Australian waters. The Dutch sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria in 1606 and one Dutch sailor was killed by the Tjungundji (whose hero was the warrior Sivirri). Another Dutch ship visited the area in 1623, but in attempting to kidnap people was met by 200 warriors who drove the sailors away. James Cook, in spite of the popular misconception, also met with some resistance in Botany Bay. Two Tharawal men, after sending away the women and children, stood firm against Cook’s landing. According to Cook’s account of the incident: “We then threw them some nails, beads etc. ashore which they took up and seem’d not ill pleased in so much that I thought that they beckoned to us to come ashore, but in this we were much mistaken, for as soon as we put the boat in they again came to oppose us upon which I fired a musket between the two which had no other effect than to make them retire back where bundles of their darts lay, and one of them took up a stone and threw at us w...
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..., and movement controls and restriction of ceremonies meant that Aboriginal people were much more isolated from each other than they had been before. This, together with the influences and impact of European culture, resulted in the development of new artistic styles. In some areas gospel music with a uniquely Aboriginal (or Torres Strait Islander) flavour was written and performed, in others country-and-western music or blues styles developed. More recently have come rock music and modern dance groups such as Bangarra. From the 1950s, new materials and styles came to be used in the visual arts, including watercolours, acrylic paints, pottery, photography, landscape, abstract art, and sculpture. These also reflected the radical changes in lifestyle and economy resulting from permanent European settlement, although the effect varied considerably across the continent.
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