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...n such that it was a physician’s duty or role to act in the best interest of their patient and safeguard the health of the people. It was a set of professional guidelines written by physicians for physicians as opposed to the Code, which was written by jurists for use in a legal trial. The Declaration of Helsinki was also a much longer document than the Nuremberg Code and thus laid out more principles and with less room for uncertainty.
The two sets of principles are just ethical principles and nothing more. Neither of them has any legally binding authority or means of enforcement. The adequate protection of human research subjects is not guaranteed under these codes, we just have to trust that they are being treated properly. The Code should be rewritten so that there is some enforcement of the principles instead of just hoping that doctors will behave ethically.
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