Historically, the use of animals for experimental purposes dates back to early Greek physician-scientists. Aristotle and Galen both conducted experiments on animals in an effort to contribute to our understanding of science and medicine.1 Claude Bernard later established animal experimentation as part of the scientific method. Known as the father of physiology, Bernard stated that “experiments on animals are entirely conclusive for the toxicology and hygiene of man. The effects of these substances are the same on man as on animals, save for differences in degree.”1 Bernard’s work strongly influenced the use of animals in biomedical research, which has become a common, and often required, practice today. The American Medical Association (AMA)...
... middle of paper ...
Library, Animal Welfare Information Center. 6 April 2014. https://awic.nal.usda.gov
7. Kolar, Roman. “Animal Experimentation.” Science and Engineering Ethics. Jan 2006; 12(1): 111-122.
8. Flecknell, Paul. “Replacement, Reduction, Refinement.” Comparative Biology Centre, Medical School, University of Newcastle. 2 March 2012. Presentation at a symposium "Use of animals in research: a science-society controversy?" Doerenkamp-Zbinden-Foundation.
9. Isbrucker, Richard, et al. “Alternative methods and strategies to reduce, refine, and replace
animal use for human vaccine post-licensing safety testing: state of the science and future
directions.” Procedia in Vaccinology 5. 2011; 47-59.
10. Hamilton, Geraldine. “Body Parts on a Chip.” TEDxBoston. June 2013.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Research is responsible for virtually all the medical breakthroughs there have been- there are medicines and vaccines and cures and treatments and more life saving benefits being developed today- but an important factor to the development of medical advances is the inclusion of animals in research. Virtually almost everyone alive has benefited from the medical advances made feasible through animal testing. According to my aunt Blanca, who is a mother of a child who was diagnosed with severe epilepsy says, “We should be thankful and supportive of animal testing” (Perez).... [tags: vaccines, animal testing]
2468 words (7.1 pages)
- Imagine being forced to move away from your home and from your family with no say in the matter. You are moved to an unfamiliar environment where you aren’t able to choose how you live your life. You don’t get to decide when or what you will eat. You can’t choose what you will do with your time and who you will spend it with. You are confined into a small area and you are completely alone. These are the conditions that many animals are forced to live under. Animal testing is defined as the use of non-human animals in research and development projects (dictionary.com).... [tags: Animal Rights]
1175 words (3.4 pages)
- Animal Testing In the 1880’s, Louis Pasteur conducted one of the most unpleasant series of animal experiments in the history of the fight against infectious disease. Unable to see the organism that causes rabies with the microscopes available, he convinced a skeptical medical community of the microorganism’s existence and also the possibility of vaccinating against it. He did this by doing work on rabbits and dogs. In 1885, after much heart searching, he tried out his rabies vaccine on a nine-year old boy, Joseph Meister, who had been bitten 14 times by a rabid dog.... [tags: Animal Testing]
686 words (2 pages)
- Medical testing is a common thing. Everybody knows the importance of it. The thing is not everybody knows how a lot of the experiments are conducted. For the people who do not know animals are abused and mistreated for the sake of medical research every day. Even though animal research has played a key role in the advancement of medicine it is still inhuman, because only 6% of animals are used for medical testing. (About My Planet) Prisoners should be used in the place of animals for the advancement of medical history.... [tags: Science Experiments, Animal Testing]
1923 words (5.5 pages)
- Animal Experimentation has been around for centuries. In fact, animal testing dates back to the days of Aristotle. During these times, scientists would dissect animals to test surgical procedures before using these procedures on humans, which is similar to what we do now. Today, vivisection, the use of animals for scientific purposes, helps and hinders medical research and development. Therefore, there are many pros and cons to animals testing for scientific research. So far animal testing has resulted in the increase of countless human and animal lives and life expectancies around the world.... [tags: Animal Experimentation, History, Polio, Rubella]
943 words (2.7 pages)
- ... English physician William Harvey discovered that the heart, and not the lungs circulated blood around the body. He found this as a result of his experimentation on live animals. Since 1948, animals have been used in a space program in the US, for testing aspects of space travel. Since the Vietnam War, animals have also been used in military training. Every year, over 25 million animals are used in a series of different experiments. Some include cosmetics and biomedical experimentation. Invertebrates are much more common than vertebrates in animal testing.... [tags: experiments, immune system, diseases]
520 words (1.5 pages)
- Today's world population has advanced this far due to the help of animal testing in various kinds of areas. Yet, some people disagree with animal testing and stand against it. Protestors call animal testing a animal cruelty, which is not similar to the least point. During 1940s and 50s Polio spread around North America killing many and giving great fear to the citizen. Even President Franklin Delano Roosevelt suffered from polio, which led him to become cripple. This chaos was saved with animal testing and it eradicated polio saving many lives.... [tags: animal cruelty and abuse]
790 words (2.3 pages)
- Physicians are known to have performed vivisection on animals for hundreds of years, and nowadays animal testing remains an essential element of research in medicine and pharmacology. Animal experimentation has generated heated discussions among scientists, philosophers, and politicians. This issue is very controversial, since it involves ethical questions. While it is generally accepted that testing cosmetics on animals is unnecessary and immoral, there is a debate concerning the use of animals for medical purposes.... [tags: Should animal testing be allowed?]
1935 words (5.5 pages)
- HIV Vaccine Testing in Africa The United Nations estimates that 5.8 million people per year become infected with the immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Ninety percent of these infections occur in sub- Saharan Africa, where infected persons do not have access to antiviral therapy. Approximately 2.4 million Africans died of AIDS in 2002, and 3.5 million occurred in the region. Where in the United States $12,000-$15,000 is usually spent on treating an HIV-infected person per year, only $6 is spent annually per person in Uganda.... [tags: essays research papers]
1091 words (3.1 pages)
- Animal testing is an issue in today's society that, whether anyone realizes it, does affect each of us. Such as transplants, vaccines, and medicine. Nearly each and every one of us today have received vaccine shots. We have all used medications. We have all heard of transplant technology. This above example I have used is farfetched. Brain transplants are not an everyday occurrence. They are not yet, at least. However, kidney and heart transplants are beginning to become a more and more common every day.... [tags: essays research papers fc]
851 words (2.4 pages)