Ethics in Research: Example of the Landis Facial Expression Study Essay

Ethics in Research: Example of the Landis Facial Expression Study Essay

Length: 665 words (1.9 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Good Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Ethics, though sometimes overlooked, are an integral part in conducting proper research. Though the primary goal of the researcher may be to find answers that support his hypothesis—particularly, positive results that successfully can apply to the general population—maintaining ethical conditions is also just as important, if not more. Some of the most infamous studies that have occurred in the social sciences field throughout the years were ones that raised ethical concerns. One such study is known as the Landis Facial Expression Study that was conducted in 1924 by Carney Landis, who was a graduate student in psychology at the University of Minnesota at the time.
Initially, Landis’ experiment to discover whether all humans are prone to project the same facial expressions that coincide with such emotions as surprise, happiness, anger, and disgust after being exposed to different situations seemed pretty harmless. In order to test his experiment, Landis brought in some of his fellow graduate students into a laboratory and drew marks on their faces, so that their facial expressions could be made more visible when presented with different stimuli. At first, Landis’ subjects were presented with a variety of strange, but relatively mild tasks that they were asked to do that included smelling ammonia, watching pornography, and putting their hand into a bucket containing frogs. While completing the tasks, Landis would take pictures of the students to take note of their reactions. The controversy, though, existed in the last task that Landis’ had his subjects complete, which involved decapitating a live rat so that the facial expression for disgust could be recorded. Unsurprisingly, many resisted. However, after being told to do so many...

... middle of paper ...

...cular emotion. Assuming that the two-thirds felt as if they were forced to do something that they really did not want to do, their facial expression could have portrayed more than just disgust. In other words, the reason why there was not a universal facial expression for disgust could have been as a result of Landis’ coercion, which could have contributed to feelings of anger, sadness, etc.
Ultimately, I feel that the benefits in this study did not outweigh the ethical problems that existed in the study. The premise of Landis’ study was quite simple and practical and could have been carried out easily without any type of harm done. In fact any of the emotions that he was trying to study could have all been represented if he presented the subjects’ with more normal kinds of stimuli. Perhaps, in doing so, Landis could have found more universal facial expressions.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Analysis Of The Movie ' Coming Of America ' By Filmmaker John Landis Essay

- The film “Coming to America” by filmmaker John Landis, presents a dilemma faced by an African prince regarding his country’s culture and traditions. Although the film is not based on any real country, persons, or events it may affect certain individuals as they may relate to some of the issues presented within. Coming to America takes place in two different countries. One of them being Zamunda Africa a fictitious place and the other Queens New York in the United States. The main characters I will focus on primarily are Prince Akeem and his father King Jaffore of Zamunda Africa and Cleo McDowell along with his daughter Lisa McDowell of the Queens New York....   [tags: Marriage, Love, Culture, John Landis]

Good Essays
1032 words (2.9 pages)

Ethics in the Medical Field: Sofia's Case Study Essay

- Defining the subject of ethics is a complex task, as are the issues faced in an ethical dilemma. Ethics is often referred to as ‘moral philosophy’, which searches for answers to moral questions such as what is justified and virtuous. Other definitions of ethics include meta ethics, which examines the “nature of morality” itself and what we mean by specific moral terms, such as “good and bad”. Normative ethics is concerned with what we ought to do (Banks, 2006. pp. 4-5). This essay will discuss what happened versus what other professionals thought ought to happen in the work involving Sofia, a 15 year female with an incurable heart condition....   [tags: Case Study, Ethics, Medical, solution]

Free Essays
447 words (1.3 pages)

Ethics : The Philosophical Study Of Morality Essay

- Ethics is the philosophical study of morality. These days our society is changing due to advanced technology, hence the study of ethics is very important than the previous decades. In fact, the study of ethics is not a new issue but Socrates and Plato used ethical reasoning to explain different unjust issues before 2000 years. Ethics is one of the major issues, which does have not any guideline to a particular activity that is morally good, bad or neutral. However, everyone has different understanding and judgment about ethics depend on their cultural, economical, and family back ground....   [tags: Ethics, Morality, Happiness, Philosophy]

Good Essays
1511 words (4.3 pages)

Ethics And Ethics : The Tuskegee Study, Henrietta Lacks, And The Tudor Study

- Ethics has changed over the years as perspectives and ideals have developed. Professionals alike now question what was once seen as entirely ethical. Today speech-language pathologists have a written code of ethical standards to adhere by; to ensure the most ethical practices as seen by today’s standards. This code has changed several times throughout history due to the unethical procedures of others research. This code is used by both researchers and clinicians to facilitate the safety of all those involved....   [tags: Ethics, Business ethics, Morality]

Good Essays
1080 words (3.1 pages)

Essay about An Aristotelian Study Of Ethics

- With those who are good shrouded in light and those who are evil relegated to dark and misty caves, the Nordic people’s separation of moral right and wrong is difficult to overlook. An Aristotelian study of ethics depicts vices and virtues on a linear plane, with the mean virtue in the center and its extremes on either side. A deficiency of a virtue, courage for instance, is cowardice, while an excess of courage can lead to rashness (Aristotle). This view forms the basis for my argument that the characters in Beowulf are subjected to a sliding scale of virtue....   [tags: Virtue, Ethics, Courage, Aristotle]

Good Essays
819 words (2.3 pages)

Essay about Ethics Case Study: Clinical Psychologist

- As the result of a colleague’s sudden serious illness, a clinical psychologist is asked to teach a physiological psychology course, which is definitely outside his area of expertise. The course begins in one week. The department chair recognizes that the psychologist is not competent is this area, but he is as qualified as anyone else in the department and is the only person whose schedule can accommodate the course. The course is required for graduation, and several seniors will not graduate at the end of the semester if they do not take the course now....   [tags: Psychology Case Study]

Good Essays
1255 words (3.6 pages)

My First 4 Mat For Landis Essay examples

- Design Your Process Throughout all of these papers and 4-Mats I have set plenty of goals, many of which I achieved and others that I did not. In the First 4-Mat that we wrote on “Do Hard Things” I set out to try to gain more friends through being more open and warm. I accomplished my goal of talking to people before class started and I ended up meeting one of my closest friends that I have here at CBU. I consider my goal of being friendly a long term goal because I will have new classes each semester and new friends to meet in each class....   [tags: Learning styles, Education, Goal, Learning]

Good Essays
1751 words (5 pages)

Ethics Case Study Essay

- There are two main ethical issues that have been identified within this scenario. The first is that the acceptance of McJack’s sponsorship conflict with the schools recent efforts and policies to encourage healthy eating habits and lifestyles. Furthermore, if the school accepts the sponsorship offered in conjunction with the stipulated conditions it would ultimately be endorsing discrimination against Molly based on her appearance. The focus ethical frameworks that have been use to provide my final recommendations for this scenario are Consequentialism, Non-Consequentialism, Virtue Ethics and Care Ethics....   [tags: Ethics]

Good Essays
1563 words (4.5 pages)

Baywatch Ethics Case Study Essay

- Baywatch Case Study When a company decides to execute a strategic decision, the decision will concern its stakeholders, either through the making of the decision itself or through implementation of the decision. Although strategic decisions are generally made "to attain superior performance" (Hill, Charles) improving the welfare of the internal stakeholders, the attainment of this goal may cause the entity to disregard their notion of right and wrong moral principles in order to achieve that goal....   [tags: Business Ethics]

Free Essays
1365 words (3.9 pages)

Essay about Business Ethics Case Study

- Business Ethics Case Study Peter Paulson's offer to provide the previous case documents to Steven Craig is professionally unethical but morally permissible. In addition, I believe that the offer was not theft but possession by entitlement and permission. His actions are a great example of how professional ethics and morals don't always align in the analysis of a case. Part (1) Peter Paulson's offer although helpful commits the Texas Board of Professional Engineers code....   [tags: Business Ethics Morals]

Free Essays
1401 words (4 pages)