The human actions and motivations have been an issue which philosophers argued on. Several ethical theories were proposed in order to justify or explain the human actions. We can justify the human actions by claiming normativity “what one ought to do” and I can explain by claiming descriptive ethics “what one does do”. The explanatory claims are descriptive in position in which they present principles that can’t be broken like sociology and laws of science, while normative claims are justificatory in position that explains in a sense “one ought” thus generating duties. For this, three arguments for egoism were presented: The Psychological egoism, the ethical egoism or common sense morality in disguise and the rational egoism.
Ethical theories are theories that assigns fundamental role to self-interest. This fundamental role can be explanatory or justificatory. Rational egoism states that any act is rational if and only if it serves self-interest. It doesn’t say anything about moral acts, making it a non-moral theory.
Ethical egoism states that an act is good if and only if it serves self-interest. It is a normative theory holding that people ought to do what is in their self- interest
The problem with ethical egoism is that it doesn’t match our common sense morality, this can be explained by the following: Normally, people decide which moral theory is right depending on their moral intuitions and on their ethical judgments and in return,...
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As a conclusion, psychological egoism looks at human psychology and motivation and works in proving that all humans are egoistically motivated being against any other moral theory that includes altruistic or deontic behaviors. But this thesis has showed its weakness in self-sacrificing acts and being emasculated by answering that every action is egoistic from the perspective that every person do what he wanted to do making it trivially true. In this paper, I presented examples showing our egoism in our daily actions and shed the light on the weakness of the psychological egoism, offering a replacement of this theory called the predominant egoism.
Shaver, Robert. "Egoism.", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta , 04 Nov. 2002. 28 Mar. 2014
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