Ethical Considerations in Relation to Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

Ethical Considerations in Relation to Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

Length: 1064 words (3 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Strong Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Introduction
As medical technology continues to advance, options to treat what were once thought to be fatal conditions continue to increase. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used since the 1970s and became a common therapy for newborns with respiratory failure (Rehder, Turner, & Cheifetz, 2011). Despite ECMO’s proven pediatric use, there are still ethical concerns over this therapy. There are concerns over the expense of this particular therapy in relation to results (Richards & Joubert, 2013). There are also multiple complications that can occur while using ECMO, and recently the expansion of using ECMO in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), using ECMO as a bridging therapy while awaiting organ transplantation, and also using ECMO to maintain organ perfusion in organ donation have all brought up ethical considerations. Research is ongoing to further explore these issues.
The Basics of ECMO
ECMO is an external cardiopulmonary bypass circuit that serves to temporarily replace the functions of the heart and lungs. This necessitates the surgical placement of a catheter into a central vein located near the heart and a second catheter that can be placed in either a different central vein (VV ECMO), which is used for respiratory support, or placed into artery (VA ECMO), used when the patient requires cardiac and respiratory support. These catheters are connected to the ECMO machine where the blood is pumped through an oxygenator where carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen instilled (http://nyp.org/services/carf/what-is-ecmo.html).
ECMO has an established history of being used as a pediatric modality with critically ill patients as a last life-saving effort. Yet, there still is controv...


... middle of paper ...


...dult Respiratory Failure: Life Support in the New Era. Intensive Care Med, 38, 210-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-011-2439-2
Mishra, V., Svennevig, J. L., Bugge, J. F., Andresen, S., Mathisen, A., Karlsen, H., ... Hagen, T. P. (2009, August 21, 2009). Cost of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Evidence From the Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. European Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 37, 339-342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcts.2009.06.059
Rehder, K. J., Turner, D. A., & Cheifetz, I. M. (2011). Use of Extracorporeal Life Support in Adults with Severe Acute Respiratory Failure. Expert Rev. Respir. Med., 5(5), 627-633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/ERS.11.57
Richards, G. A., & Joubert, I. (2013, July 2013). Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO). South African Journal of Critical Care, 29(1), 7-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJCC.161

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay about The Membrane Of The Cell Membrane

- Cells are living things that requires substances to be imported into the cell for growth and repair just as a human, or animal, needs to eat for growth and repair. Unlike the human or animal that has arms, jaws, or external tools to collect and consume food, the basic cell does not have any external appendages to readily obtain the substances it needs. This does not leave the cell without any way to obtain the required substances, obviously otherwise they would all be very short lived, and the ways they obtain substances differ in the required energy and the substance being obtained....   [tags: Cell membrane, Cell, Lipid bilayer]

Strong Essays
730 words (2.1 pages)

Voltage Sensor Of Membrane Potentials Essay

- As the article was reviewed, it is clear that the main purpose of the research presented was to create a voltage sensor that would send out fluorescent signals and return responses from the actions of membrane potentials. The researchers also wanted a voltage sensor that would keep track of the membrane potentials in neurons at quicker rates by using a microscope that not only detects refection and adsorption but also fluorescence. The method, in this design plan, places the fluorescent protein into the extracellular, S3-S4, loop domain....   [tags: Neuron, Action potential, Membrane potential]

Strong Essays
1413 words (4 pages)

Measuring The Permeability Of Cell Membrane Essay

- Biology Assignment 2 Measuring the Permeability of Cell Membrane in correlation to temperature. Prediction: The Prediction is that as the temperature rises as does the permeability of the cell membrane, as the permeability and the temperature increase so does the amount of pigment being released. Introduction: During the experiment I worked with Helen Grinter. The Reasoning behind the experiment is to see what effects Temperature has on the permeability of Phospholipid bi-layer of Beetroot cells and the amount of pigment released from the vacuole....   [tags: Energy, Temperature, Cell membrane, Lipid bilayer]

Strong Essays
1136 words (3.2 pages)

Essay The Functions of Erythrocyte Membrane

- The erythrocyte membrane has many functions, the first of which is to serve as an impenetrable fluid barrier which separates the inside contents of the cell from the plasma. The membrane allows it to transport O2 and CO2 by maximizing the ratio of surface area to volume with its biconcave disc shape. The membrane is also strong and is constantly going through shape and metabolic changes and has a tensile or lateral strength that is greater than that of steal. The membrane is also more elastic than a comparative latex membrane, this strength and elasticity allows for deformability (Solberg, 2013)....   [tags: cell membrane, red blood cells, cholesterol]

Strong Essays
1031 words (2.9 pages)

Essay on Cells And The Cell Membrane

- Despite the fact that there is still plenty to ascertain about cells, what is known so far has had an extensive impression on a multitude of scientific fields. The analysis of cells has even assisted in the investigation to more effectively understand cancer. Cells are essentially the building blocks of life. As a matter of fact, all organisms varying from the minuscule and simple organisms to the gigantic and sophisticated organisms are made up of cells. Truly, something that is noteworthy about cells is that although they are so small they have even smaller organelles with many important functions within them....   [tags: Cell wall, Cell, Cell membrane, Bacteria]

Strong Essays
1577 words (4.5 pages)

The Effect Of Intracellular Fluids On The Cell Membrane Essay

- Human cells are partially made up of liquids that are both inside and outside of our cells. The water inside the cell is called intracellular fluid (ICF) and makes up about 42% of the total body weight. On the other hand, extracellular fluids (ECF) usually denote all body fluid outside of the cells. In order to define which area the fluids are based, they are determined by its location to the cell membrane. For instance, if the fluids are found to be on the outside of the cell membrane, it would signify that we are viewing ECF....   [tags: Blood, Potassium, Cell membrane, Glucose]

Strong Essays
722 words (2.1 pages)

How Molecules Can Move Across A Semi Permeable Membrane Essay examples

- The purpose of this lab is to determine which molecules can move across a semi-permeable membrane. The hypothesis for this experiment is as follows; As the smaller molecules of iodine travel through the “cell membrane” the artificial cell will gain mass. Dialysis tubing, a thin membrane that behaves in much the same way as a living cell’s actual plasma membrane, was used to test this experiment. After filling the dialysis tubing with the starch and glucose solutions, the artificial cell was then submerged in a water and iodine solution, and the results we’re recorded after 30 minutes....   [tags: Cell membrane, Cell, Semipermeable membrane]

Strong Essays
792 words (2.3 pages)

Osmosis Through A Semi Permeable Membrane Using Dialysis Bags Essay

- In this experiment we took dialysis bags and filled them with various sucrose solutions and put them in water over a period of about 90 minutes to look at the osmosis in each bag and the tonicity of each environment the bags were in. We also took potato pieces and submerged them into various sucrose solutions to determine the ideal state of tonicity for plants and the osmosis that occurred over a period of time. The final results for the first exercise was that 0.8M sucrose solution gained the most mass and that it was hypertonic to its environment....   [tags: Osmosis, Semipermeable membrane, Diffusion]

Strong Essays
2246 words (6.4 pages)

Investigating The Permeability Of The Membrane Using Red Blood Cells Essay

- An investigation of the permeability of erythrocyte membranes. A membrane is a barrier between the cell contents and the cells surroundings. The structure of a membrane contains a lipid bilayer that forms a membrane by the arrangement of molecules. (Wright, 2015) The functions of the membrane are to protect the cell, detecting molecules and cells within the external environment and control the cells contents. (Nature Edition, 2012) Chemicals can get through a cell membrane by the nuclear pore complex, which controls what enters and exits the nucleus....   [tags: Cell membrane, Red blood cell, Cell nucleus, Blood]

Strong Essays
939 words (2.7 pages)

Membranes : An Integral Function Essay

- Membranes play an integral function in trapping and securing metabolic products within the borders of a cell within an aqueous environment. Without a selectively permeable border surrounding sites of anabolic function, potential useful products of this metabolism would simply diffuse away in the aqueous environment contained within and surrounding the cell. However, securing metabolites within the cell also comes with a price of not being able to acquire potentially useful compounds from the surrounding environment....   [tags: Cell membrane, Protein, Membrane protein]

Strong Essays
1051 words (3 pages)