Essay The Estimation Of The Number Of Transcriptional Enhancers

Essay The Estimation Of The Number Of Transcriptional Enhancers

Length: 1196 words (3.4 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Strong Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

“Discuss the estimation of the number of transcriptional enhancers in the human genome, and how to study their regulatory activity.”

Introduction.

Cis-regulatory elements, such as insulators, promoters, silencers and enhancers, are sequences of non-coding DNA, which act as a sequence-specific binding site for protein, such as transcriptional factors (TFs), resulting in the regulation of the gene transcription. Particularly, enhancers are known for their ability to significantly increase the level of transcription of a particular gene and therefore its expression (Banerji et al., 1981). Enhancer sequences can be located up to thousands of kilobases upstream or downstream from a relevant gene, moreover enhancers can also be found within a gene (Pennachio et al., 2013 and Heintzman et al., 2009).
In 2004 IHGSC released a fully sequenced human genome and estimated the number of protein-coding genes to be 20,000-25,000. Considering the fact that all somatic cell of an organism have the same DNA content, and therefore the same number of genes, the ultimate task for a cell should be to control the gene expression in cell-type-specific and tissue-specific manner. Enhancers serve as one of tools for achieving this goal. Heintzman et al. (2009) found that the number of enhancers identified only from two cell lines already far exceeded the number of protein-coding genes and predicted the approximate number of enhancers in the human genome to be 1 x 106. The accuracy of this estimation will be discussed later as well as the shortcomings of the methods used. Furthermore, additional approaches to validate enhancers identification will be considered.

Estimation accuracy

Heintzman et al. (2009) used markers, such as CTCF insulator protein...


... middle of paper ...


...? Molecular cell, 49(5): 825-837.

Griffiths A. J. F., et al. (2011). Introduction to Genetic Analysis (10th edition). New York: W. H. Freeman.

Heintzman, N.D. et al. (2009). Histone modifications at human enhancers reflect global cell-type-specific gene expression. Nature 459: 108-112.

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. (2004). Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome. Nature 431(7011): 931-945.

Pennachio, L.A. et al. (2013). Enhancers: five essential questions. Nature Reviews Genetics 14: 288-295.

Shlyueva, D. et al. (2014). Transcriptional enhancers: from properties to genome-wide predictions. Nature Reviews Genetics 15: 272-286.

Wang, Q., Carroll, J. S., & Brown, M. (2005). Spatial and temporal recruitment of androgen receptor and its coactivators involves chromosomal looping and polymerase tracking. Molecular cell 19(5): 631-642.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Importance Of Numerical Estimation Of The National Council Of Teachers Of Mathematics

- The Importance of Numerical Estimation The standards and principles of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) (2000) emphasize the importance of understanding numerical magnitude as the pre-K2 students endeavor to make sense of numbers. “Number magnitude is an essential feature for algorithms . Use of the algorithms not only depends on the automatic recall of number facts but also reinforces it. Far too many middle and high school students lack the ability to accurately compare the magnitudes of such numbers." NCTM also acknowledge the estimation proficiency and precision provide solid foundation for future mathematics success not only for individual differences of computatio...   [tags: Mathematics, Number, 1, Real number]

Strong Essays
975 words (2.8 pages)

Essay on The Results Of Number Line Estimation And Base 10

- Coding The results of number line estimation and base 10 questions were coded to for the next analyses. Estimation accuracy The 0−100 number line estimations were measured by the 0−20 CM ruler with scales of every 0.2 CM (equals to number 1) and 0.02 CM (equals to number 0.1) on it. The experimenter used the ruler to measure the results of estimated number magnitudes (e.g., 15). The experimenter input both the estimated and actual number magnitudes of each number and calculates percentage of absolute error (PAE) of each estimation result....   [tags: Regression analysis, Statistics]

Strong Essays
1142 words (3.3 pages)

An Estimation Of Visitor Numbers And Expenditure Essay example

-  An estimation of visitor numbers/expenditure from the identified country based on an analysis of a range of internal and external information sources. Future trends Estimates of visitor numbers Estimates of expenditure 2016 – 2017 50,000 $1 billion 2017 - 2018 60,000 $ 1.8 billion 2018 - 2019 80,000 $ 2 billion  An analysis of existing and previous marketing plans, strategies and campaigns and their effectiveness in increasing visitor numbers and expenditure. Your analysis should also identify marketing successes and how this can be applied in marketing to consumers in your identified country....   [tags: Marketing, Customer service, Customer, Sales]

Strong Essays
1960 words (5.6 pages)

Essay on Steroids and Other Performance Enhancers

- The issue over steroids and other performance enhancer drugs has been a recent topic in the sports world. The debate over whether or not to punish those who have been caught using has been a major topic recently, as well as the legalization of these drugs. When arising the question of whether or not to legalize steroids, many positive and negative factors are brought to the table, and in effect could change various aspects of our normal day lives. Anabolic steroids are a class of natural and synthetic hormones that promote cell growth and division, resulting in growth of muscle tissue and sometimes bone size and strength....   [tags: Drugs ]

Strong Essays
1205 words (3.4 pages)

Essay on Number the Stars, by Lois Lowry

- Character list Annemarie is one of the main characters in this book. she is a 10 year old german girl who lives in Copenhagan, Denmark with her mom, dad, and young sister Kirsti. Annemarie tells the story from her point of view. “It was only in the fairy tales that people were called upon to be so brave, to die for one another.Not in real-life denmark” annemarie struggles to find the definition of courage, but with the big journey that awaits uphead she soon finds out. Ellen is also one of the main characters in this book , she’s also the same age as her best friend annemarie....   [tags: Number the Stars Essays]

Free Essays
1284 words (3.7 pages)

Origin of the Number Zero Essay

- As ancient numerical systems came to be and evolved over time, so did the number zero. Zero did not seem to be an obvious start to the natural numbers to the mathematicians who pioneered the different number systems of the past. Having a symbol that meant basically “nothing” appeared in a few cultures but usually long after the initial creation of the culture’s number system and sometimes was a controversial idea. (Textbook) The delay in adding zero to the number systems was most likely because in most cultures the earliest number systems were additive....   [tags: systems, number, cultures, symbols]

Strong Essays
904 words (2.6 pages)

Demand Estimation : A Product Or Service Essay

- Demand Estimation is a process that involves coming up with an estimate of the amount for a product or service. This demand is typically confined to a particular time period such as a month, quarter or year. According to Luke Arthur, “Demand Estimation not away to predict the future of any business, it can be used to come up with some fairly accurate estimates if the assumption are made correctly. One of the reason companies use demand estimation is pricing, when you offer a new product or start a new business you may not have an idea on how to price your product....   [tags: Supply and demand, Consumer theory]

Strong Essays
860 words (2.5 pages)

Essay on The Estimation Of Health Production Function

- The Estimation of Health Production Function in the United States 2010 Introduction Health economics is an important and growing field in Economics. The health sector accounts for over one-sixth of the U.S. economy, and its share of gross domestic product (GDP) is expected to grow each year. The healthcare costs in the United States have shown an upward trend in recent years as well. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), total healthcare spending in the U.S. continued to grow from 13.4% of its GDP in 2000 to become 15.2 % of the GDP In 2008....   [tags: Health care, Health economics, Medicine]

Strong Essays
1367 words (3.9 pages)

The Importance of Stature Estimation Essay

- Webster-Mirriam defines stature as the natural height (as of an individual) in an upright position. Estimating stature is important for individualization in forensic cases and mass disasters. Along with assessments of age, sex, and ancestry, stature estimation assists a forensic anthropologist in building the biological profile of an unidentified decedent (DiGangi, Moore). Research has shown that measurement of the lengths of the long bones is the most useful for estimation of living stature of an individual when the full skeleton is not available (DiGangi, Moore)....   [tags: individualization in forensic cases]

Strong Essays
1224 words (3.5 pages)

Estimation of Chlorine in Household Bleach Essay

- Estimation of Chlorine in Household Bleach In this investigation, I am looking to determine the amount of chlorine present in household bleach. However, in order to do this I would have to calculate the mass represented by chlorine in the mass of the household bleach. After doing that, I would then have to represent this as a percentage. In order to calculate the mass represented by the chlorine in the mass of the household bleach, I would have to titrate this solution, along with an excess of potassium iodide and ethanoic acid against sodium thiosulphate from the burette using starch solution as an indicator....   [tags: Papers]

Free Essays
995 words (2.8 pages)