The Establishment Of The United Nations ( Un ) After The Second World War

The Establishment Of The United Nations ( Un ) After The Second World War

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Following the establishment of the United Nations (UN) after the Second World War, there has been ongoing debate and conflicting opinions with regard to the ability of the ‘universal international organisation’ to uphold peace and security in the international system (Muravchik 2006; Melber 2011; Ryan 2000: 1-4; Weiss and Zach 2012: 374-375). There are several scholars and professionals who argue that the UN has been – and will continue to be – a ‘central institution’ with a ‘critical role’ in the maintenance of international peace and security (Roberts and Kingsbury 1994: 9 Donlon 1996: 576). This view reflects the central argument of neoliberal institutionalist scholars, who assert that international organisations or institutions are independent variables that have the ability to alter state preferences and establish rules that constrain states, and thus a significant role in the maintenance of international peace security (Keohane and Martin 1995; Mearsheimer 1994/1995; Mingst and Karns 2007: 7-9). However, there are also various critics of the UN, who contend that the organisation has not only been largely ‘ineffectual’ but is also a ‘hindrance’ in upholding international peace and security (Bertrand 1994: 474; Muravchik 2006). These criticisms are directly supported by the contentions of neorealist scholars, who contend that international institutions reflect the global distribution of power and the ‘self-interested calculations of the great powers’ and ‘have no independent effect on state behaviour’ (Mearsheimer 1994/1995: 5-8).
While the starkly contrasting views detailed above can be substantiated by different theoretical arguments and historical cases, it is determined that a reasoned and ‘realistic’ perspective of the ab...


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... constituent body of the UN’ (Mahapatra 2016: 48; Mingst and Karns 2007: 84-85). The specific powers of the UNSC are codified in Chapters VI-VII of the Charter, which empower the UNSC to ‘ensure that states do not resort to war to resolve conflicts and the world remains peaceful’ (Mahapatra 2016: 48). A critical feature of the UNSC is that it is an ‘exclusive forum’, in which the victors of the Second World War (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) comprise the five permanent members, with the power to ‘veto any resolution’ (Weiss and Zach 2012: 376). The veto power was provided as a ‘tactical compromise’ in order to ensure great power cooperation, which is widely viewed to be one of the major ‘pitfalls’ of the failed League of Nations (Weiss and Zach 2012: 376). In addition, the UNSC also includes ten non-permanent or ‘rotating members’

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