Each group denied the existence over the other and so ensued the struggle over controlling the same territory. Although the Arab-Israeli Wars brought drastic changes to the Arab nations by dispelling the idea of Arab unity, it had the most significant effect on Israel , because it turned Israel into a powerful nation and a force to be reckoned with by the surrounding Arab nations in the Middle East. Before the war of 1967, Israel was a small territory surrounded by members of the Arab League who backed the destroyed country of Palestine. These Arab nations did not recognize Israel as a nation in the Middle East , because they did not believe that Zionism could be used as nationalist movement . They saw the Zionists as Europeans and members of the Western world who were not Arab and did not have attachment to the territory.
The October War of 1973 was a result of the Arabs frustration towards Israel for not relinquishing the territories it had acquired during the Six Day War of 1967. In other words, Israel’s victory in the six-day war resulted in the Arabs retaliation in the October war. Both Syria and Egypt had lost territory to Israel and both were looking to gain them back. Israel sought for peace with the Arab nation, but they wanted no involvement of a third party, whereas the Arabs wanted a Third party to be involved2. Consequently, both the Egyptians and the Israeli’s were unwilling to compromise their desires, which resulted in Egypt waging war on Israel.
Radical Muslims took the meaning of Jihad to an extreme measure of performing violent acts for it is what their “God wants”. Some Muslims viewed the attack as heroic and martyr’s for their sacrifice under the name of Jihad. The Taliban’s act of war can be applied to the Just War theory. According to the Jus ad Bellum, the Taliban’s just cause to attack America was their claim on fighting for religious purposes. The radical leader of the Taliban, Osama Bin Laden, led the 9/11 attacks.
There are different historical views on what really provoced the war of 1967, the Israelis would clearly blame the Egyptians and point at Nasser's agressions as the main provocation leading to the war. Another view is that Nasser did not have the intention to fight Israel at that point, but when the UN troops in the Sinai were withdrawn suprisingly after Nasser's demand, Nasser had to make true his big promises to defeat Israel to the other Arab nations. He wanted to keep his reputation as the ultimate leader of the pan-Arabian league and he could only do so by moving his troops towards Israel, which no longer had a protection buffer by the UN troops in the Sinai. Another view is that "the Six Day War was the result of Egyptian- Israeli brinkmanship that went over the brink". Pressured by each others arms build up, the race kept going and the deciding spark was given by Egypts move of closing the Straits of Tiran for Israeli ships.
After Britain backed down with angry Jews, the UN stepped in to attempt to control the situation with a compromise. They introduced a Palestine partition to keep peace. In my opinion this was a very naive action because previous events had shown that many Arabs and Israelis had an 'all or nothing' view on the conflict and were not willing to compromise. Predictably, the division didn't work because the Jews provocatively called their part of the division Israel. Because of this the Arabs attacked but were defeated and the Jews ended up gaining more land and many Palestinian refugees.
Is it Terrorism to Attack Terrorists? Terrorism is politically motivated violence intended to intimidate and terrify. When U.S. embassies were bombed in Kenya and Tanzania, Washington decided to retaliate. On Aug. 20, 1998, the U.S. launched military strikes at what they believed were terrorist-related bases in Afghanistan and Sudan. They believed these groups played a key role in the embassy bombings.
Though the United States was the military power of the world prior to World War II, its foreign policy was one of detachment. The government was determined not to get involved in other countries affairs barring unusual circumstances. A World War provided big enough means to become involved, as many Americans became enraged with the military ambitions of Japan and Germany. Following World War II, Soviet leader Stalin initially agreed to a democratic government in Poland and to free elections in other Soviet-occupied countries, but he ignored his own promises. This caused the United States and Britain to ignore Stalin’s wish of taking a hard line with Germany in settlement talks.
Arab Refugee Crisis During the Israeli War of Independence in 1948 an Arab refugee crisis began, and there is still not a clear answer of what caused it. As inhabitants of Israel Arabs were greatly affected by the establishment of a Jewish State, because their home was governed by others. Nonetheless, the Palestinian Arabs contributed in the making of the refugee crisis. The Arabs were given the choice of becoming equal citizens of Israel and refused. The United Nations came up with Partition Plan for Palestine, but it was rejected.
Since September 11, the new American enemy is terrorism. To eliminate terrorist organizations, Bush has invaded Afghanistan and Iran. Bush has continued the precedent of ideology-induced foreign policy by justifying the invasions as introducing civilization to the primitive Middle East and simultaneously protecting American interests. Bush, like Reagan, has intertwined ideology with national security. Reagan’s intervention in El Salvador was driven by ideology, but was justified as protecting national security, whereas Bush’s invasion of Iraq was prompted by national defense, but was promoted as American ideology.
The issue had gotten worse when the British became heavily involved and decided to negotiate with the Arabs within the early 20th century. Unfortunately for both groups, the British had managed to gain control of certain parts of the Middle East with its influence through the Mandate of Palestine (White, 201). The Balfour Declaration of November 1917 was created as a promise to the Jews that they were going to have their own homeland (White, 200). The negotiations were meant to keep both Palestinian Arabs and Palestinian Jews satisfied, but instead, the opposite had occurred (White, 201). The Palestinian people wanted out of the British control.