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In 1939 the ‘Monster’ study was conducted by Wendell Johnson in Iowa. Johnson along with his research assistant, attempted to induce stuttering in children and test whether positive or negative reinforcement would cause a change in children already afflicted with the speech impediment. Johnson selected 22 orphan children and split them up into a group of 10 and a group of 12. The group of 10 consisted of children who were stutterers. Within this group were two subgroups, consisting of 5 children each. One group was told that their speech was fine, while the other group was told that their speech is “as bad as people say”. In the group consisting of 12 children, all were normal speakers. 6 were told that their speech was normal and 6 were told that they needed to fix their speech as soon as possible as they were beginning to stutter (this was not true). This horrific experiment continued as planned for months and the treatment each group received was continuous. The children told that they stuttered became quiet, withdrawn and self-conscious. This study violated the ethical guidelines found in both the Nuremburg Code and Belmont Report. According to both documents, harm should be minimalized while benefits should be maximized. Attempting to cause stuttering in children was an unnecessary risk, which if succeeded at would have caused a plethora of lifelong problems. The children were also unaware of the nature of the experiment and this violated the first section of the Nuremberg Code.
In 1971, Philip Zimbardo conducted a study at Stanford University which attempted to examine the psychological effects attributed to becoming a prisoner and prison guard. Out of and application pool of 70 males, 24 were chosen due to t...

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...e study. As stated, many men died, thus no beneficence could not have been in place. Death was an expected outcome, and that was not at all seen to be a problem. When a cure was made available, the participants were lied to and told such a thing did not exist. The selection of participants were not random and this infringes upon the aspect of justice as it is defined the Belmont Report. The study did not have voluntary consent and the results were not at all fruitful or beneficial to society as a cure was developed a few years into the study, making the study itself and whatever findings useless. Physical harm was inflicted and was essentially necessary for the study. The Nuremburg Code was in effect for the majority of this study, however no one seemed to care which is surprising, as the U.S Government was in charge of all matters pertaining to this study.
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