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Gulf War was initially happened when Iraq, who led by the president Saddam Hussein, invaded Kuwait on 2nd February 1990. This made other Arab neighbouring countries to called on United States and requested its military assistance. With this invasion, United Nations Security Council has ordered Iraq to withdraw its troops from Kuwait, whereas this request was rejected. This has lead to the war began, codenamed as Operation Dessert Storm, between the United States and its other coalitions fight against Iraq. The war, eventually, was ended on 28 February 1991, with a declaration of ceased fire from Bush administration. The United States and its allied coalitions won over their belligerent Iraq, where Iraqi troops were expelled out of the Kuwait.[source] This Gulf war is well known as a U.S. military success, but a completely failure of U.S. media [8D]. So, it is interesting to understand its challenges and its behaviour during this period of time. Before jumping to this section, it is essential to understand its general role of the media, its importance, media theories on how U.S. choose stories to cover, and the literature review of the media during the war. Media play an important role in increasing of public awareness and collect the views, information and attitudes toward certain issue. Media is the most powerful tool of communication in emerging world and increased the awareness and presents the real stage of society [10A]. Media institutions are needed to be professional in their news reporting, in term of fairness, balance, and accuracy [9B]. According to Britannica Public Opinion (ask TPK), media has influence on public opinion regardless of what extend, and information contributes to the formation of opinion. The power of ... ... middle of paper ... ...ourth, the U.S. media are also constrained by the dominant ideology of anticommunism, which extensively featured in the media before and during the Cold War era [8C]. These factors are linked together, reflecting how powerful business and government to exert power over the flow of information. However, Herman argues that journalists are unaware of their own deeply rooted biases and that professionalism and objectivity are uncertain and insincere [8C]. These theories give insight understanding when study on behaviour of U.S. media and on how it choose stories to cover in the media piece. In the Gulf war, which started from the beginning of August 1990 to late February 1991, apparently see the failure of the U.S. media in reporting about war. This study will focus on U.S. media challenges, with evaluation with Herman and Chomsky theories of how U.S media behave.
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