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the battle of vicksburg

Satisfactory Essays
Introduction

As our country was about to complete its first year of the Civil War, the Union Army and President Lincoln were looking for a way to severely cripple the Confederate Army. In November of 1861 United States Navy Commander David Dixon Porter was in Washington awaiting a meeting with Secretary of the Navy Gidon Welles. Commander Dixon, while waiting to see Secretary Welles was approached by two United States Senators; James Wilson Grimes of Iowa and John Parker Hale of New Hampshire (Zeller and Hallowed Ground Magazine 2013).
Commander Dixon seeing an opportunity to inform two highly influential Senators informed the two senators of his plan that would allow for the Capture of the City of New Orleans Louisiana and then the city of Vicksburg Mississippi. Intrigued by the plan they were just presented, Commander Dixon was asked to present President Abraham Lincoln with his plan. President Lincoln Understanding the strategic importance behind occupying Vicksburg authorized the plan. This would set into motion a battle that would help turn the tides of the Civil War.

History
On April 12th 1861 the first shots of the Civil War had been fired when the Confederate Army attacked Fort Sumter located in Charleston Harbor, Charleston South Carolina. Following that attack, President Abraham Lincoln needed to make a devastating blow to the Confederate Army, while at the same time gain complete control of one of the most important logistical advantages which was the Mississippi River (Zeller and Hallowed Ground Magazine 2013). Lincoln understood that if the Union Army controlled the river they could paralyze the Confederate Army by stopping supply routes. President Lincoln along with his Navel Commanders and Ar...

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...icksburg. With stronger numbers Pemberton would have been able to maintain a supply route to Jackson, Mississippi. The Confederate Army had to have known that the Union Army would hit with large number, and try to cut them in half from Jackson, MS. The Confederate Army also failed to heavily fortify New Orleans. Both of these locations were high value targets.
The Union Army understood that they needed New Orleans and Vicksburg. They knew the logistical and strategical advantages in holding both cities. Union forces used naval and ground forces to weaken the Confederate forces. Ultimately seeing that the best strategy was to place a blockade on the river and cutting off supply lines to the Confederate forces. The Union Armies ability to adapt to the situation and overcome long, cold and wet marches allowed them to defeat the forces at Vicksburg with minimal losses.
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