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Our desk research has focused on reviewing literature, lessons learnt and best practices covering array of activities undertaken by parents in support of education in the North and South with a focus on Morocco and rural areas. This covered roles and responsibilities within the family, school and community (Drummond et al., 2006; Thijs, 2012; Keyes, 2002; Epstein, 2001; Sheldon, 2002) and the influence of these three areas on school enrolment, attendance and learning outcomes (Barnard, 2004; Hoover-Dempsey et al., 2005; Ampiah et al, 2009; Dearing et al., 2006; Nettles et al., 2008; Waanders et al., 2007). It also covered (1) best practices in governing and operating PTAs (Goodall, 2011; Stern, 2012; Nye, 2006; Feiler, 2010; Risko et al, 2009; PTA UK, 2007); (2) gender, inclusivity and education (Unterhalter et al., 2007; Filmer, 2005; Grant et al., 2010; Said et al., 2005; Rieser, 2008; Mazawi et al., 2010; Brule, 2007; Muskin et al., 2011); and (3) PTA-led social entrepreneurship practices (Scofield, 2012; Social Enterprise Academy, 2011).
This desk research shows that parental engagement can lead to higher performance in literacy, especially in families of low socioeconomic and educational backgrounds (Jones and White, 2000). Parental participation is also linked to the environment in which parents and children live, including their income levels, working conditions and cultural factors which all tend to influence how much time is available to parents and thus their levels of contribution (Edge et al., 2008; Marphatia et al., 2010). These factors, when combined with parental literacy levels (Waanders et al., 2007) and their knowledge, skills and sociocultural attitudes and traditions, further influence their decision and ability...

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...es, activities, fundraising, priorities, benefits, contacts and consultation. o Build a dedicated team and group of occasional volunteers beyond PTA members o Surveying parents to understand what skills they can offer o Identify clear opportunities for involvement for potential parent volunteers o View parents more as active agents rather than as passive receptors or providers o Mainstream inclusivity and diversity among members and in activities/interventions planning and implementation o Job share roles and work shadowing especially where parents lack confidence o Diversify communication channels and focus on disseminating information in partnership with the school and other community outlets o Utilise committee meetings as communication channels o Document and publish PTA's activities and the benefit provided to the school, children and the overall community

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