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The Roman Revolution and the Gracchus
There were many effects of the empire building in the social order and administrative structure of the Republic. In the time of Punic and Macedonian Wars in the third and second B.C. centuries the Roman soldiers were kept away for years at a time. Many of the soldiers were faithful to the land and committed themselves as they did to Rome. Other soldiers stayed because they enjoyed the spoils and luxuries of conquered lands. Other administrative structures that had affected the peasants were the soldiers had pushed peasants away from their land and landed them into the cities where existence was hard. Times were hard on them because most of the peasants were unemployed and lived by begging.
The problems that the Republic faced in the mid second century were the senatorial classes have been growing in numbers and becoming richer and wealthy. In order to maintain their political position it would mean to consolidating its power and not giving in to the interests of any other order except its own. The urban masses were forced to completely separation from their land and their citizenship, and forced to sell themselves away to farmer at the highest bidder. It seemed by this time that the senatorial classes became greedy and instability of the masses.
The Optimates were conservative known as the good men the members of the aristocracy. The Optimates interests were to limit the power of the popular assemblies and extend the power of the Senate. They were viewed as more dedicated to the interests of the aristocrats who held the reins of power. The Populares were the aristocratic leaders. The Populares interests were too relied on the people's assemblies and the tribune to acquire political power.
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... with the tribunes and the disaffected assembly against the Senate and patricians. The Senate feared Caesar and his popularity with the masses. The three men Pompey, Crassus and Caesar set aside their differences and establishing the First Triumvirate. This was overwhelming power in the Roman Republic but was strictly unofficial influence.
The role of powerful general’s play in the decline of the Republic by Rome’s failures to adapt it city or state styles of government to ruling an empire triggered a century long pattern of events that would eventually lead to fall of the old oligarchy led by the Senate. The careers of Gaius Marius and Sulla represent the path to political power in the last century of the Roman Republic. Another role of the powerful generals is Caesar, he made up a personal army to march into Rome to bring peace and prosperity to the Roman people.
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