For maintenance of reactor stability, proper balance between each trophic group of microbial communities is very important. The first hydrolytic step of anaerobic digestion producing VFA is very fast compared to methanogenesis, i.e. consumption of VFA. If the VFA produced is not removed from the system by methanogens, the accumulation of VFA can lower the pH leading to inhibition of methanogens. Moreover, it has been also reported that 4-5 mM acetate level can inhibit the acetoclastic methanogenic activity (Dogan et al., 2005).
Effluents from many food processing industries, slaughterhouses, edible oil processing industries, and dairy product industries contain high lipid. These lipid-rich wastes content lipids as a main ingredient and causes problems during the anaerobic treatment of waste. One of the operational problems associated with lipid is clogging. Besides clogging, it also causes the mass transfer limitation forming a layer on the surface of granules by absorbtion. Due to adhesion of fat, biomass wash out is another problem in anaerobic reactors treating any lipid-based wastewater (Cirne et al., 2007).
1. Introduction Ammonia is the major metabolic end product during the catabolism of proteins, amino acids and other nitrogen containing biomolecules in different animal tissues. Ammonia is very toxic to the fish. Its toxicity leads to reduced growth rate (Atwood et al., 2000; El-Shafai et al., 2004; Hegazi and Hasanein, 2010), disruption of ion-osmo homeostasis (Knoph and Thorud, 1996; Person-Le Ruyet et al., 2003, 1998), gill hyperplasia (Benli et al., 2008), and if present in very high concentration, it causes hyperexcitability, coma, convulsions and finally death (Ip et al., 2001b). To survive the effect of the ammonia toxicity, fish modifies its metabolism by either decreasing the production of ammonia, increasing its excretion, or converting the ammonia to glutamine and/or urea (Ip et al., 2001b).
Being a thermodynamically unstable compound, H2O2 commonly undergoes decomposition into water and oxygen. The reaction is described in figure 2. Yeast which contains the enzyme ‘catalase’ can be responsible for the degradation of H2O2, as seen in the experiments that are to be discussed. Substances which cause an increase in the rate of reaction subsequent of its addition to two or more reactants is a catalyst. Reactions have lower activation energy upon being catalysed than one which is uncatalysed, (see figure 3) resulting in a higher reaction rate at the same temperature (Wikimedia, 2014).
This reduction process is through catalytic hydrogenation on palladium catalyst. Then, the purified terephthalic acid is obtained . Apart AMOCO process, the other catalytic process to produce terephthalic acid by direct oxidation was widely st... ... middle of paper ... ...terephthalic acid solubility in water increased linearly proportional with temperature. This situation happens due to the low dielectric constant nature in supercritical water, making it as a good solvent for non-polar substance like para-xylene. Therefore, it can be concluded that the reaction and yield of the reaction could be adjusted by the modification of reaction temperature.
Dehydrogenation is a substance response that includes the expulsion of hydrogen from a natural particle. It is the reverse reaction of hydrogenation. Dehydrogenation is a vital response since it changes over alkanes, which are moderately inactive and consequently not as valuable as olefins, which are receptive and along these lines more important. Alkenes are antecedents to aldehydes, alcohols, polymers, and aromatics. Dehydrogenation forms are utilized widely to deliver aromatics and styrene in the petrochemical business.
(1988) and Arcand et al. (1994) indicated that under strong hydrodynamic shear granules formed were compact while it was hard or impossible to achieve sludge granulation under weak hydrodynamic sh... ... middle of paper ... ...ure of the biofilm, especially a reduction in the diversity resulted upon elevation is shear intensity. Kundu et al. (2013c) studied the effect of shear by increasing the upflow velocity from 4 to 10 m h-1 step by step in a hybrid anaerobic reactor, where the whole granular bed was maintained in fluidized condition. Increase in upflow velocity up to 6 m h-1 positively affected the reactor performance, but after 6 m h-1, a sharp decline in the performance of the system was observed and at 10 m h-1 the reactor was deteriorated.
The nitrogen containing BPs are more potent and exert their action via inhibition of the mevalonate pathway which is by binding and blocki... ... middle of paper ... ...Watts, N. B., Ebetino, F. H., & Rogers, M. J. (2008). Mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates: Similarities and differences and their potential influence on clinical efficacy. Osteoporosis International, 19(6), 733-759. Schwartz, H. C. (2005).
The presence of electron-donating substituents (-CH3, -OCH3, OH) on the aromatic ring substantially increases the rate of alkylation (Table 3 entries 1-6), shorter reaction time, while electron withdrawing groups (NO2, Cl, Br) decreases it (Table 3 entries 7-9), longer reaction time. The electron withdrawing substituents on the phenol cause more reaction temperature. They significantly decreased the %conversion, but electron-donating groups increased %conversion under milder conditions. The low yield obtained in the case of Electron withdrawing substituents (Table 3 entries 7-9) may be due to the strong deactivating influence of the chlorine, bromine and nitro substituent on the aromatic ring.
Discussion Overall this experiment was a success yielding 98.8% of the initial 1.34g of known compounds. Looking at Table 1 the problem of separation quickly becomes apparent, both M-Toluic Acid and Acetanilide are insoluble in water. This left two non-salts in one mixture, and what solvent to use to separate these two was the most important question as their respective melting points are also very similar. After looking at both compounds and noticing the M-Toluic Acid (Image 2) had an OH group hanging off of it next to a double bond, the H ion on the end would be susceptible to a base. But further investigation showed the large number of hydrogen atoms hanging off the Acetanilide (Image 3) and it was thought that the NaHCO3 would be strong enough to rip the Acetanilide apart.