Evolutionary theory is developed from Darwin’s argument that “suggests that a process of natural selection leads to the survival of the fittest and the development of traits that enable a species to adept to its environment. “ Many have taken this a step further by saying that our genetic inheritance determines not only our physical traits but also certain personality traits and social behaviors. There is such a controversy over significant behaviors that unfold because many believe that we are already pre-programmed human species. It has also been argued that evolution is reflected in functioning and structure of the nervous system and that is has evolutionary factors that have a significant influence on everyday behavior. With what is being said means that if we follow the evolutionary theory, then it would be said that we are already pre-programmed from before birth to follow certain protocols in life.
In reference to humans, there are many traits that have been selected and adapted for throughout their evolutionary history giving them the characteristics that they have today. In this paper I will discuss some parts of the human body, which have been found to be selected for by the evolutionary mechanisms of natural selection, adaptation and mutation. Natural selection, adaptation, and mutations are three components of the evolutionary process, each one having either positive or negative effects on the other. What exactly is natural selection? There are many variations of the definition but most agree that it must include the following concepts: some attribute or trait must vary among biological entities, and there must be a consistent relationship, within a defined context, between the trait and one or more components of reproductive success, where "reproductive success" includes both survival and the reproductive processes themselves (Futuyma, 1998).
Environmental factors interact with genetics to form personality. The biological approach is just one of many that explains why we are the way we are. Some psychologists, such as Carl Jung, Hans Eysenck, and B.F. Skinner developed theories emphasizing the genetic influences on personality. Charles Darwin was the first who introduced that evolution mixed with genetics play a role in the behavior of humans. By looking at our personality with a biological approach, psychologists understand exactly how and why the brain influences the way people act, feel, and think and new treatments are made from studying this approach to psychology.
He adopted an approach that focused on the level of the gene. He saw social behavior as controlled, in principle, by particular genes, and he saw evolution as occurring at this level because reproductive success amounted to increasing the frequency of certain genes in future generations. However, the insistence of sociobiologists on grounding at least some behavior in universal human genetic predisposition runs contrary to cultural anthropologists' emphasis on the primacy of culture itself as the determinant of human social life. Several distinct approaches can be identified in contemporary sociobiology. The first one is evolutionary psychology.
Their work introduced a new perspective on the study of growth or change in humanity. The center of evolutionary psychology focuses on questions like: How does a trait develop and evolve in an individual, Are all traits subject to change or are there certain unchanging human traits? By asking these sorts of questions, evolutionary psychologists, thanks to Darwin, can understand if a certain trait is shaped by natural selection and how a trait can contribute to a beings survival. In other words, the world has gained a new persp... ... middle of paper ... ... Although one hundred and fifty five years have passed since Charles Darwin’s book, On the Origin of Species was published his influence is still felt today.
Describe what evolutionary psychologists mean when they employ the term ‘theory of mind’. Use examples and research studies from Book 1, Chapter 2 to show why this theory is important in evolutionary psychology. Evolutionary psychology is a specialist field within the spectrum of psychological enquiry, which seeks to examine and understand some of the predominant reasoning behind the concept of why the human species, whilst biologically similar to other species on the planet, is so very distinct in terms of intelligence and mental progression; demonstrated by the multifaceted and complex social structures we have created. Primary to this domain of evolutionary psychological interest is the notion of ‘theory of mind’, which was developed and advocated by Premack and Woodruff (1978), and has been the topic of fierce discussion and analysis since. It has resulted in manifold research studies and commentaries, regarding the topic, from an extensive range of sources within the academic field of psychology.
Evolution in physical anthropology is an biological science that deals with the adaptations, variability and evolution of human beings and their living and fossil relatives (Hagan, 2009). Because it studies human biology in the context of human culture and behavior, physical anthropology is also a social science (Hagen, 2009). In our reading textbook, the meaning of evolutions means we affect it, it affects us, and we are dependent on it. Another meaning is the actions of the natural processes that have affected every living organism (Park, 2009). Physical anthropology deals with the evolution of humans, their variability, and adaptations to environmental stresses (Cruz, N.D).
This belief can be seen through two processes- the first being individuals are born with a specific phylogeny sequence that allows individuals to solve problems in a particular way and the effect of epigenetics, The second way being through the process of adaption and ontogeny’s. Phylogeny refers to inherited genotypes, and epigenetics is “the non-genetic influences on genotype expression” (Webster). Adaption is the “the adjustment or changes in behavior, physiology, and structure of an organism to become more suited to an environment.”(Buss.D.) Ontogeny refers to the characteristics of an individual developed as a result of experiences. I believe that the Biological/Evolutionary psychology theory can be used to understand my Sea Cadet experience because in cadets you are forced to adjust to your environment or else you do not rank up or receive medals and awards.
Compare two different methods that have been used by evolutionary psychologists. Evolutionary psychology in seeking to increase understanding of contemporary behaviour and abilities looks not to the causal explanations of the immediate cause, but to the far reaching functional explanation of assumed evolutionary cause – then asks how and why we are as we are. These ideas are informed by many disciplines from anthropology to ethology and archaeology, what follows is a comparison of 2 methods illustrated by examples and different research methods. One method – Observation, classification and induction bases itself on those of natural history. Observations are made within the real world, classifications are made of the numerous instances that have been seen and from here rational inferences and general laws are formulated.
Hence, causing the interest of psychologists in seeking explanations of the motivational basis of behavior, how personality is formed and the various types of personalities. The aim of this essay is to show how genes play a role in one’s personality development. In order to do so, the aspects of how genes, environment and gene-environment interaction on personality development, will be investigated. Finally, it will be concluded that both hereditary and environmental factors can both influence a person’s personality