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power in negotiations

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Negotiation is a fundamental form of dispute resolution involving two or more parties (REF1). Negotiations can also take place in order to avoid any future disputes. It can be either an interpersonal or inter-group process. Negotiations can occur at international or corporate level and also at a personal level. Negotiations often involve give and take acknowledging that there is interdependence between the disputants to some extent to achieve the goal. This means that negotiations only arise when the goals cannot be achieved independently [2]. Interdependence means the both parties can influence the outcome for the other party and vice versa. The negotiations can be win-lose or win-win in nature. The disputant will either try to force the other parties to conform to their demands or try to formulate a solution which satisfies both parties. The nature of their relationship during the negotiation is linked to the nature of their interdependence, the way negotiations are piloted and the final outcomes for the disputants [3]. Effective negotiators try to comprehend the ways in which other disputants may alter or readjust their positions during the whole process. This is comprehended by looking at how other disputants alter their positions during previous negotiations. Negotiations also involve a desired amount of information exchange and try to influence the other disputant’s outcome. This process of give and take is necessary to achieve a favourable agreement. Disputants usually will not want to cooperate if they sense a lack of willingness to compromise from the other party’s side.

The political scientist Robert Dahl (1957:202), defines power as: “A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something B would not othe...

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...ing or devaluing the needs and wants of a less powerful disputant. Power combined with perspective taking results in constructive and integrative negotiation. When considering others perspective or opinions, individuals with more power has a protective shield against the traitorous behaviour from other disputants [6]. This means powerful negotiators are not easily manipulated or affected by their disputants anger or threats posed. As I mentioned before individual with more power is less likely to be influenced by opponents emotions but identifies only their interests in bargaining and the total desired outcome. Therefore power inversely affect the negotiator’s perspective taking but it also immunizes him/her from disputants angry or threatening tactics. With taking into account perspective taking and power a negotiator will have advantage when it comes to bargaining.
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