pain

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Toby-Finn, a 21 year-old Caucasian gentleman, is presented to the Emergency Department with a chief complaint of severe abdominal pain. Toby-Finn, who is a full time college student was just discharged three days ago from the Medical Surgical Unit status post laparoscopy appendectomy. Upon arrival to the Emergency Department, Toby-Finn has a computed tomography of the abdomen, and he is diagnosed with Ischemic Necrosis of Small Bowel, and required to go under another abdominal surgery. Toby-Finn was given a total of four milligrams of Morphine Sulfate intravenously, five milligrams of Reglan intravenously, and one liter of Normal Saline intravenously in the Emergency Department. The admitting physician, Dr. Sophie had contacted the surgeon, Dr. Scarlett for emergency surgery. In the meantime, Dr.Sophie had provided a written order for pain management to keep the patient comfortable.
Nurse Molly, who is continuing the care in the Medical Surgical Unit noted that Toby-Finn and his brother, Toto are anxious. She initiated a therapeutic communication, and encouraged both of the patient and the brother to verbalize their feelings and concerns. Toby-Finn then stated that he is worried that the pain will never go away. Nurse Molly is aware that pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional sensation associated with actual and potential tissue damage (Porth, 2011). To her best knowledge, Nurse Molly explained about acute and chronic pain.
Pain is a complex and subjective phenomenon that involves biological, psychological, social factors, and cultural. It is interpreted and perceived in the brain. Each individual responds differently to pain because every person has different pain thresholds and tolerances. According to Porth (2009), pai...

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... behavioral therapies, which include the use of guided imagery, have shown promise in changing pain perception and coping patterns in people with chronic illnesses including pain.
In addition, to keep a patient comfortable, pain control promotes recovery and may reduce risk of developing certain complications after surgery. Through the use of guided imagery and other pain management strategies, the patients can achieve better pain control and improved functioning and will enjoy a better quality of life (Dobson & Byrne, 2014). Also, the inability to escape from pain may create a sense of helplessness and even hopelessness, which may predispose the patient to a more chronic depression. According to Wells, Pasero, and McCarffery (2008), around the clock dosing is recommended during this early post-surgical period to prevent severe pain and control continuous pain.

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