Polypharmacy is associated as a major factor placing older adults at risk for an adverse drug event. As the number of medications increase, the need for monitoring becomes much more crucial. When there is a breakdown in proper monitoring, the older adult is significantly placed at a higher risk for negative health outcomes due to serious side effects, poor adherence, adverse drug reactions and adverse drug interactions. Adverse drug events or medication errors that result from polypharmacy can often be difficult to predict and prevent. According to an article posted in the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy (2012), drug –drug interactions may lead to increased toxicity levels when taken together.
Healthcare providers need to understand how aging impacts the body’s response to medications, which drugs pose more risk to elderly patients, how to recognize drug related problems, and most importantly how to prevent adverse events. Causes of Polypharmacy Polypharmacy among elderly clients occurs for a variety of reasons. There are more drugs now available to treat specific diseases and symptoms than ever before. New discoveries that have lead to new, more effective medications for patients have helped patients in many ways (Bender, 2005). Unfortunately, these discoveries have also fueled inappropriate use of and overuse of medication.
Vitamin D: beneficial for pain, fracture, and falls in long-term care residents?. Annals of long term care, 19(5), 33-36. Risk factors for falls in older people in nursing homes and hospitals. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of gerontology & geriatrics, 56(3), 407-415. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2012.12.006 Sterke, C. S., Ziere, G., van Beeck, E. F., Looman, C. N., & Van Der Cammen, T. M. (2012).
Tarascon pharmacopoeia: 2013 Professional desk reference edition (p. 328). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning. Hawkins, J., Roberto-Nichols, D., & Stanley-Haney, J. (2012). Abnormal vaginal bleeding.
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Life expectancy has grown over the last 100 years. This leads to a variety of health issues and problems that affect these elder generations quality of life. According to the United States CDC, one in three American adults suffers from hypertension. With so many Americans having high blood pressure it is no surprise that hypertension is one of the most dangerous conditions, leading to death, in the elderly. Doctors often skip directly to subscription, medications to help control elevated blood pressures, but other problems can arise from these medications, like dementia.
Association of Operating Room Nurses.AORN Journal, 97(6), 654-72. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aorn.2013.04.004 Study links workplace chemical exposures to miscarriages among nurses: data suggests that exposure to chemotherapy drugs and sterilizing agents puts nurses at risk. (2012, April). Briefings on Hospital Safety, 20(4), 4+. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA288538633&v=2.1&u=miami_richter&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&asid=9cca539712ab06be526003982a559021 University of Miami Health System. Plan for the provision of patient care (2013).
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PICO:“If older adults’ suffering from depression participates in cognitive Behavioral Therapy will they experience a reduction in depressive symptoms versus only receiving medication management?” Research Question or Hypothesis Older adults are a growing population and currently make up over 13% of today’s population. “Unfortunately, Depression affects more than 6.5 million of the 35 million Americans aged 65 years or older” (Duckworth K., 2009). Depression in older persons is directly correlated with disability (Duckworth K., 2009). “The risk of depression increases with age so that 40% of those over 85 are affected” (Duckworth K., 2009). “Depression is a major health problem that affects many older people, causing significant distress and disability, exacerbating existing medical conditions, and resulting in earlier death and higher use of services” (Frazer, Christensen, & Griffith ,2005 ).
Cummings, Sherry M. “Adequacy of discharge and rehospitalization among hospitalized dementia patients.” Health & Social Work. Nov. 1999. ProQuest. Web. 20 Oct. 2011.