Rehabilitation of the family unit is the answer, say many, not punishment. In response to this, new ideas have formed to rehabilitate the family unit, but first, the family structures that are precursors to delinquent behavior must be identified. “Family Life, Delinquency, and Crime: A Policymaker’s Guide,”compiled by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, introduces us to the theory that the family structure is a precursor to delinquent behavior. The authors and research contributors cite various family “dysfunctions” that contribute to delinquent behavior. Some of the family dysfunctions that the authors focus on are; parental criminality, parental interaction, parental supervision, and single-parent families.
There is no specific estimate of the exact role that child abuse and neglect plays in the United States, however, it is certain that there is a significant social problem in this area. Elrod and Ryder (2011) state that even mild forms of violence against children may encourage aggression and that physical abuse is strongly related to a variety of childhood adjustment problems. One of the major areas of childhood adjustment problems lies within the area of violent juvenile crime. Child physical abuse, aside from having physical injuries, affects the mental state of a c... ... middle of paper ... ...ed very seriously when determining if this has anything to do with their decision to become involved in delinquent acts. Child physical abuse can lead to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and can ultimately affect their state of mind and how they view decisions as good or bad.
In this type of parenting, spoiling the children’s behavior by giving bribes and gifts are their parenting tools instead of setting the boundaries and expectations. Parents are often afraid to set limits as they believe child has to be true to his or her own nature (Traunter, 2017). According to research (2009), children under the permissive parenting approach is more likely to display low achievement in many areas and develop other risky behaviors such as drug use and other forms of misconduct. Children under the permissive parenting grow up without the strong sense of self-discipline. Since the parents don’t set the boundaries for the children, they lack the skills in social setting.
Given these possibilities, family life may directly contribute to the development of delinquent and criminal tendencies. Parental conflict and child abuse correlate with delinquency. Though not all children who grow up in conflictive or violent homes become delinquent, however, being exposed to conflict and violence appears to increase the risk of delinquency. At this point, researchers have not pin pointed what factors exactly push some at-risk youth into delinquency. A child with criminal parents faces a greater likelihood of becoming a delinquent than children with law-abiding parents.
Theories suggest different possible etiologies, which include: social factors, biological factors, psychological factors and physiological factors, among other things that may mold a child into a juvenile delinquent. There is no one certain theory, regarding juvenile delinquency, that can completely distinguish all the determining factors that makes youth turn to crime; although, the study of all these theories and ideas can bring criminologist one step closer to uncovering the truth about juvenile delinquency. Only the further understanding of juvenile delinquency can help the prevention of future juvenile offenders. This paper will focus on the individual factors of delinquency, as well as the social elements, and provide an explanation of how the combination of the two elements may cause children to engage in criminal activity. Background: Juvenile delinquency is not by any means a new phenomenon, although the way that juvenile offenders are treated when apprehended is constantly changing.
Crime is sometimes blamed on the family, with poor parenting, lack of discipline and family breakdown often associated with youth crime. A recurrent theme in academic research has been to investigate the relationship between delinquency and a range of family related factors. Early studies explored child-rearing behaviour, parental discipline, the criminal histories of parents and family size and income. Popular theories in the 1950s and 1960s related juvenile delinquency to material deprivation, broken homes and to the growing number of ‘latch key’ children who were left unsupervised after school while their mothers went to work. All of these presaged current concerns with discipline and the role of single-parent families.
What are foster homes? How do they differ from group homes? Foster homes are a type of non-secure confinement that may or may not be associated with an offense. If a court finds that a youth's parent or guardian is unfit that youth may be placed into a temporary household. Not all youths placed in foster care are criminals, some are orphaned or in need of supervision.
In particular, timely recognition of at-risk youth and correction of ineffective or minimally effective parenting techniques are critical to the prevention of future delinquency (Lundman, 1993). Numerous risk factors have been identified as indicators or predictors of juvenile delinquency and those factors represent dysfunction at several levels, specifically within the structure of the offender’s family. Some of these factors include conflict within the family, a lack of adequate supervision and/or rules, a distinct lack of parent-child attachment, instability, poor home life quality, parental expectations, out-of-home placements and inconsistent discipline (Shumaker, 1997). Social service professionals who frequently come into contact with children must be especially vigilant in order to detect the presence of any of the possibly contributory conditions mentioned above and to refer families to appropriate sources of assistance as early as possible. Generally speaking, the relationship between family conflict and delinquency is significant.
After reading the article Should Juvenile offenders ever be sentenced to life without the Possibility of Parole (Steinberg, L.& Scott, E. 2010) I did some research on the adolescence stage of human development, regarding the reason juvenile offenders should not be sentenced to life without the possibility of parole. And I have conducted a few facts of the adolescent brain supporting this argument. I have heard many stories of the cruel and evil crimes that some children have committed. There are a number of causes that can occur during development, that can cause these, kind of criminal behaviors. Antisocial behavior which can be broken down into different types of behavior (1.)
In light of the two research articles, it is likely that exposure to violence or abuse in the home, aggressive and punitive child-rearing, or a home environment in which parents are not adequately involved in their child’s life are among the most vital risk factors for the child’s ensuing involvement in violence. Biological factors may have some influence, but light, on youth violence. This includes the development of the brain. Some children may be biologically more influenced toward violence by the time they reach adulthood due to the knowledge they have developed throughout their childhood. Dr. Steinberg shares that this does not necessarily mean that violence is genetically transmitted.