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analytical Essay
971 words
971 words
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Under the Life course perspective there is also the argument, being an anti-developmental theory, stating that individuals can turn to crime due to low self-control. The text asserts that in 1990, Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson proposed a general theory of low self- control as the primary cause of all crime and deviance (Tibbetts, 2013:188). Self- control is the ability of a person to control their thoughts, feelings, or actions. The low self-control theory makes since as well if a person cannot control themselves and make rational decisions they will often result in acting on impulse when the opportunity to commit a crime is presented to them. In addition there is also the Developmental Taxonomy presented by Terrie Moffitt. This developmental taxonomy distinguishes two types of offenders adolescence-limited and life-course persistent offenders (Tibbetts, 2013:191). Adolescence-limited offenders make up most of the general public and include all persons who committed offenses when they were teenagers (Tibbetts, 2013:191). This is more than likely due to the associations that the adolescent had acquired in their attempt to make decisions as an adult that in turn are not as positive. The text defines Life-course persistent offenders as the most violent and chronic of offenders committing the vast majority of serious violent offenses such as murder, rape, and armed robbery (Tibbetts, 2013:192). In summarizing the Life-course perspective the cause of crime is presumed to stem from how a person has evolved in their criminal career. One of the key criticisms of Life-Course theory was the anti-developmental Low Self-control theory that assumes that individuals are born predisposed toward selfish, self-centered activities and that... ... middle of paper ... ...results of adoption studies (Tibbetts, 2013:89). Some of the policy implications for the biosocial perspective are universal funded preschool for all children, screening for hormone levels, and healthcare for pregnant mothers (Tibbetts, 2013:99). In concluding these topics I have discussed the social process theory. In addition I have discussed the Life-Course perspective. I have also discussed the biosocial perspective. These three attempts to define the reason behind criminal behavior in individuals had good arguments to support their hypotheses. It is understandable that a person can be influenced by significant others, life events, genetic makeup, and environments. There is not one particular theory that defines the cause of criminal behavior within an individual and I feel as though at some point all the theories presented in criminological study integrate.

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that under the life course perspective there is also the argument, being an anti-developmental theory, stating that individuals can turn to crime due to low self-control.
  • Explains terrie moffitt's developmental taxonomy, which distinguishes between adolescence-limited and life-course persistent offenders. adults are more than likely to have negative associations.
  • Analyzes the life-course theory's criticism of the anti-developmental low self-control theory, which assumes that individuals are born predisposed toward selfish, self-centered activities.
  • Explains that the biosocial approach presents a number of studies such as nature v. nurture, cytogenetic, and chemical imbalance.
  • Explains that cytogenetic studies of crime focus on abnormalities in chromosomal makeup. the xyy mutation has been the primary focus being that there are larger levels of testosterone.
  • Explains that hormones carry chemical signals to the body as they are released to certain glands and structures. the study ties closely with the cytogenetic study of a male with an extra y chromosome.
  • Analyzes the biosocial perspective, stating that the cause of crime would stem from genetics and environment, while the crime type would be minor and petty. the selective placement could bias the results of adoption studies.
  • Concludes that they have discussed the social process theory, life-course perspective, and biosocial perspective. there is not one particular theory that defines the cause of criminal behavior within an individual.
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