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Many components are involved grading including weighting percentages, including non academic measures, assigning zeros and using only summative assessments. Because of the multiple components, finding studies that encompass all of these areas proves difficult. This literature review is broken into sections according to these specific areas: ● Effort can be broken into subcategories such as participation, attendance, homework and engagement. Studies vary in how effort is referenced (as a whole or in certain parts). ● Zero Policies refer to if teachers are allowed to give students a zero for not completing work. There are variations of the zero policy which are explained in this section. ● Formative and Summative assessment Effort Non-academic measures are frequently included in many teachers’ gradebooks and categorized as “effort” (Dirk, 2010). Attendance, effort, participation and behavior, while important, sometimes can comprise over 50% of a students’ grade. While it can be important to recognize these behaviors, rewarding them academically can lead to a distorted grade (Howley, Kusimo & Parrott, 1999). Many times including effort results in raising student grades which can help teachers to give students a bump in averages and avoid being criticized for having too many low grades. Also, effort can be used as a way to help influence student behavior (Cross & Frary, 1996). While experts agree that effort should be reported in some way, it should not be included in a final grade (Wormlei, 2006). Cross and Frary (1996) studied 310 teachers and over 7,000 students in a single, large school system (middle and high) about their beliefs in grading policies. The study compared results to a similar study in Virginia a few years prior an... ... middle of paper ... ...onses include that class discussions (75%), in-class writings (55%) and group work (35%), were the portions of participation that contributed most to a student's grade (Dirk, 2010, p. 95). However, attendance was listed as the most important aspect. This seemed odd because if attendance was most important, it should have been mentioned in the previous response about how much different areas were weighted. Also, attendance merely requires a student to be physically present, not actually participate in activities, but at the same time, is a precursor to most of the other participation activities (Quinn, 2013). Teachers overwhelmingly stated that how they grade participation is by observations and watching note-taking. Student survey results indicate that many were clueless as to what types of behaviors were included in participation, in fact 20% stated they did know

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