literature review

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Nowadays, technology resources are meaningful tools to promote learning and social interaction. Internet has become an integrated part of people’s everyday lives. People spend time emailing, texting, chatting, looking for love, reading news, shopping, playing video games, and more. The Internet is used for all sorts of purposes: work, education, research, and recreation. This expansion of the social, personal, and professional aspects of people’s lives through use of these online media has altered the way people relate to information, and has fostered new forms of communication. Technology and Digital Era Cybermedia has certain features, certain limits and characteristics, seem to constrain or empower the speakers in their communication activities. Speaker adjusts by utilizing word-creation forms in better approaches to make new words, expressions, and linguistic use. For example, some cybermedia, such as chat Instant Messaging (IM), and Text Messaging (TM) content limit messages to a certain character length. It is accepted that these restrictions encourage the speaker to use more abbreviations (Herring, 2007). Accordingly, acronyms, such as OMG for Oh my gosh, letter homophones, u for you, and shortenings thxs for thanks may be more common in media with message length restrictions. In education, it is nearly impossible to ignore the considerable impact that the digital age has had on writing. With the technological disclosure of early twenty-first centuries, writing has become a predominantly social medium for students. With the onset of technology, it is known that students write much more than ever before, but predominantly for purposes not academic in nature. New fears have surfaced on the quality of the writing compositio... ... middle of paper ... ...tudies have reported that the usage of acronyms and abbreviations by young people declines as they grow older, making it less likely to occur in the work of college students (Baron, 2004; Tagliamonte & Denis, 2008). Rosen et al. concurred with the finding, but noted that digital language usage declined as students were better educated making them more skilled at code-switching (2010). We had chosen pre-service teacher, as the focus for our study because of the extensive media attention that text language is a serious threat to traditional literacy, if not to be the language itself (Thurlow, 2006). Looking at code-switching as the ability to change between different forms of communication or discourse. Within the context of this study, code-switching refers to the ability to change between digital language and Standard English (Wheeler & Swords, 2006; Turner, 2009).

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