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Intelligence is a very broad subject although it seems easily defined. A great amount of different meanings are given to intelligence as a concept from various cultures and sciences. Throughout history psychologists and sociologist have been trying to devise a way to reveal the level of intellect animals or humans possess. However this quest might not have a definitive answer. Intelligence therefore should be considered to be a broad and elusive concept with many distinct aspects to it.
Research in the field of animal intelligence is essential to understand the more complex aspects of human intelligence. Ken Richardson, an honorary senior research fellow in the center of human development and learning at the Open University, in his book The Making of Intelligence remarks: “We can examine the nature of intelligence in its simpler - and hopefully more comprehensive - form in other animals, and thus describe it, and how it has increased in humans, more clearly.”(9) Even though animals can provide us with explanations, in many cases scientists are amazed by their intellect. According to Eugene Linden’s article in the Times, dolphins can to a command such as “now let’s try a tandem creative” with amazing stunts of synchronization. Only through conscious thought can they understand the meaning of being creative. Moreover to perform such an act they must also communicate with each other in some way. This comes to show that dolphins do bear a form of intellect.(Linden 1) Another exiting animal is an African gray parrot at the University of Arizona which can announce true facts about all he sees. He will indicate that a tea mug is “Hot” to anyone who attempts to handle it. (Linden) Such amazing feats of thought are evident in other species mostly though in primates, which closely resemble humans.
The question however remains. How does intelligence evolve and why? For the past decades it was thought that humans’ mental development was due to the use of tools. Many studies have shown animals that are capable of using tools have less thinking capacity then others who don’t. Another astonishing fact is that humans had a fully developed brain before they started to consistently use tools. The explanation that scientists provide is that the development of intelligence is closely related to the social skills of every species. The ability to play social chess is what deter...

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...ere. He proposes that computer scientists should become more aware of the biology of the brain and try to integrate it into their work. Hawkins also notes that the creation of true artificial intelligence is not that far into the future.
Intelligence is a subject which involves many different sciences. The more human kind learns about intelligence the more we will learn about ourselves and the world surrounding us. There might come a point in the future when humans will be able to communicate with animals and machines the same as they do with each other.

Work cited
Ehrenwald, Jan. Anatomy of Genius Split Brains and Global Minds. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1986.

Linden, Eugene. “Can Animals Thinks?” Time 141 1993: n12 54-62.

Hawkins, Jeff and Blakeslee Sandra. On Intelligence. New York: Times Books, 2004.

Plomin, Robert. “Genetics and Intelligence.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 38 1999: i6 786-789.

Richardson, Ken. The Making of Intelligence. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
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