how was the development of specialised compartments in eukaryotic cells advantageous, and what problems needed to be overcome as a result?

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One of the biggest changes between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is the fact that instead of only one intracellular space they are now divided and has membrane bound organelles. Why would eukaryotic cells go through all the difficulty to become compartmentalised? It obviously must have held some advantages which outweighed the trouble. In this essay the advantages and resulting problems of specialised compartments in eukaryotic cells will be discussed. First we will look at the advantages gained. There are many including: the increase in total membrane area, the fact that some necessary proteins for metabolic processes can now be built into the organelle’s membranes and membranes can accommodate the pH and potential gradients needed to create ATP from ADP. But most importantly it enables the cell to execute several opposing functions and metabolic processes at the same time. Here are a few examples: Mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from symbiotic bacteria; these bacteria needed a specific environment to grow, so since they are now found as organelles the outer membranes act as an incubator. Another example is lysosomes and peroxisomes they use acidic conditions and chemicals for their autophagy function their membranes prevent these substances to enter the rest of the cell which would lead to the cytosol and eventually cell’s degrading. More examples is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi stacks- their jobs are similar to those of prokaryotes’ outer membranes. This internalisation enables them that in the modification of proteins they can use less enzymes but not only that they can recycle it and they can better control which proteins are being secreted. A last example is the nuclear envelope. It forms a barrier bet... ... middle of paper ... ...t the advantages of specialised compartments in eukaryotic cells is mainly that different intracellular pH, different enzyme systems, and other differences are separated. This permits the cell to carry out different metabolic activities simultaneously and it concentrate the biochemicals needed for chemical reactions so that the reactions proceed more swiftly, leading to efficiency. But it had to create processes like vesicles and membrane proteins to overcome the resulting problem of transport. Works Cited http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/1997-08/866484958.Cb.r.html http://www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk/illingworth/metabol/2120lec2.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_compartment http://malaysia.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20140301025129AAZxyjd http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22465/ highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/.../858155/answers2e_ch03.doc

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