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Mitral valve disease
Introduction

The mitral valve was the first of the four cardiac valves to be evaluated with echocardiography. This was due to the relatively high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease and the relatively large excursion of the mitral valve leaflets, which made them an easier target for early M-mode techniques (Armstrong, William F.; Ryan, Thomas, 2010). M-mode echocardiography was instrumental in providing early clues to the severity of mitral stenosis and documenting changes after open mitral commissurotomy. Armstrong et al. (1) stated that Modern two-dimensional and Doppler techniques have made echocardiography an essential tool in the management of patients with known and suspected mitral valve disease. Primary mitral valve disease can be the major contributor to cardiovascular symptoms.
In addition, the mitral valve often is affected in a secondary manner in other cardiac diseases. These include congenital lesions such as congenital mitral stenosis and acquired valve disease such as rheumatic heart disease. Other forms of acquired disease, typically presenting later in life, degenerative valve disease. Armstrong et al. (1) characterized echocardiography is the primary diagnostic tool for evaluating patients with known or suspected mitral valve disease. Vinay et al.(2) recently published “Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography for the indication of suspected infective endocarditis” have defined multiple indications for the utilization of transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography in patients with known or suspected mitral valve disease to detect vegetations and the relationship between blood cultures and transesophageal echocardiography. Also they conclude, prosthetic valve. The ra...

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...aflet flail, it is recommended for patients to have surgery at early stage.
Mitral annulus calcifications
Armstrong et al. (1) mentions Fibrosis and calcification of the fibrous skeleton of the heart are common sequelae of aging. This is most often appreciated in the posterior mitral valve annulus and can range from limited degrees of focal calcific deposits to nearly circumferential heavy calcification. In addition to age, other conditions that accelerate annular calcification include hypertension and chronic renal insufficiency.
An additional complication of extensive mitral annular calcification is the difficulty in seating a prosthetic valve in patients in whom mitral valve replacement is necessary. Patients with heavy mitral annular calcification are more likely to have subsequent paravalvular regurgitation than are patients without calcification.

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