Because of it's genetic makeup, hemophilia is carried by females however those affected are almost always males. In one-third of all cases hemophilia thought to be caused by spontaneous gene mutation with no family history. This is how females are able to be affected by hemophilia. Inheritance is controlled by a recessive sex-linked factor carried by the mother on the X chromosome. There is a fifty percent chance that the sons of a female carrier will have hemophilia.
In 1803, a Philadelphia doctor published the first description of hemophilia in the United States. But it was not until 30 years later that hemophilia became widely recognized. Hemophilia later developed a reputation as the "royal disease" because it passed from Queen Victoria of England to her descendants throughout the royal houses of Europe. Who Gets Hemophilia? Hemophilia occurs when the gene to produce clotting factor does not work correctly.
Because hemophilia is sex-linked disorder, it can be passed on from mother to child. This is because the gene responsible for making blood factors 8 and 9 are only found on the X-chromosome. If a female is a carrier that means that she has one bad gene and one good gene for this disease. There is a fifty percent chance that she would pass it on to her child because she can only pass on one of the two chromosomes. If a male has hemophilia, he will have normal sons and all of his daughters will be carriers of the hemophilia disorder because all he can pass on is the defective X-chromosome.
There are two main types of hemophilia: A and B. People born with type A are missing or have low levels of clotting factor VIII (1 in 5 000 males). People born with type B are missing or have low levels of clotting factor IX (1 in 20 000 males). About 8 out of 10 people who have hemophillia have type A. The greatest concern for both types is deep internal bleeding and bleeding into joints.
These people have the HbS trait, but not the disease, therefore leading a normal life. For an offspring to acquire the disease, both parents must have the HbS gene, yet the child only has a 25% chance of having Sickle Cells. You cannot catch the disease, you are born with it and it is present for life. There are many complications and harmful effects as the result of the Sickle Cell Disease. The disease causes hemoglobin in the red blood cells, when it does not receive sufficient oxygen, to form into long, sickle shapes with a sticky, chemical surface.
When people refer to pathogens, they are talking about bacteria that cause disease. The toxins actually excreted... ... middle of paper ... ...on of an antibody for immediate effects to cure serious diseases. A vaccine is a way to acquire artificial active immunity. It is usually dead pathogens or weakened pathogens. This dosage would not get you ill be just enough for you body to have reactions and make their own antibodies.
Type B is when the Hemophiliac lacks blood clotting factor nine (Medicalnewtoday.com). A Hemophiliac is the name given to people with this disorder. Type A takes place in about one in every 10,000 child births and Type B is one in every 50,000 child births. This disorder originates hereditarily from the mother to child, mostly from mother to baby boy. It is induced by another disorder where the baby has a deformity in one of the clotting factors genes which sticks to the X chromosome.
Antibodies also play a vital role in the neutralizing viruses. Menche et, al. explains that antibodies can neutralize pathogens by “attach[ing] directly to the surface of a virus… and stop the pathogen from attaching itself to a normal body cell and infecting it”. After successfully obliterating the virus, the T helper cells activate a regulatory T cell by releasing hormones known as lymphokines. These hormones are responsible for regulating the immune system.
Anyone with these symptoms should get immediate medical treatment instead of trying to treat it with home remedies, as these could make the appendicitis worse. Doctors come up with a few tests to test a patient for appendicitis. The easiest test to perform is the physical test. In this test, a doctor applies pressure to the painful area to see your reactions, like tightening the abdomen muscles in an attempt to guard the appendix. Blood tests are also given to check a patient’s white blood cell count.
Hemophilia is an X-Linked recessive pattern, which means it is passed down from a mother, who is a carrier of the trait, to a son, and each of the sons would have 50% chance of getting hemophilia. For example, if a normal mother is a carrier for hemophilia, and 2 out of 4 of her sons would have hemophilia, but the rest would be normal. In rare cases, girls, who are carrier of this disorder, can have some of the symptoms as men. For example, a hemophilia carrier women cut herself, she would bleed non stop and her blood won't clot properly (“Hemophilia Medical”). Next, we’re going to talk about many of the symptoms or signs of hemophilia.